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By Nick Parsons

AUD and NZD tie for bottom spot on Thursday; GBP rallies on hopes of Irish border solution


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Aussie Dollar is having a bad week, though unlike the random walk of its Kiwi cousin, there is plenty of fundamental justification for the currency’s weakness. Poor GDP figures then a disappointing set of trade numbers have pulled the rug from under the AUD at a time when we’re already seeing signs of softness in consumer confidence, wages and the residential property market. That’s a pretty long list of negative factors even before we factor in an inquiry into the country’s major banks; it’s a good thing the cricket is offering a welcome diversion.<br> <br> During Sydney time on Thursday, AUD fell from 0.7566 to 0.7545 when the trade figures were released. London walked in at 0.7540 and hit the pair down to a low of 0.7515 just before the New York day began. It then traded sideways through the North American day but couldn’t get back above the old 0.7540 support level and finished the Northern Hemisphere day at a 5-month low of 0.7507. The AUD/NZD cross was flat around 1.1000 as traders couldn’t decide which of the two currencies they disliked least, whilst GBP/AUD has just broken above last week’s near 18-month high to open this morning at 1.7940.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound rose on Thursday on a belief that somehow a deal on the Irish question must and will be reached before the end of the week. This may well turn out to be an over-optimistic assessment. The Irish Deputy Prime Minister speaking in the Dublin parliament said, “We are in a position where we still need to find a way forward but, let me be very clear, the core issues that Ireland got agreement on at the start of this week are not changing”. The BBC Political Editor tweeted she was hearing, “DUP and Tory Chief Whips in negotiations this afternoon” but nothing was forthcoming as reporters door-stepped MP’s in Whitehall.<br> <br> The history of EU negotiations – think back to Greece and the sovereign debt crises – is that deadlines are moveable and even final deadlines prove quite flexible. The price action in the GBP suggests a belief that a compromise deal will be agreed at some point over the weekend. If the opposite were the case, then the pound would already have fallen further than it has over the last few days. A lack of agreement could well bring down the Coalition government and a market facing the prospect of a Jeremy Corbyn-led Labour administration would not look on with equanimity.<br> <br> GBP/USD bounced more than a full cent off the day’s 1.3333 low to leave it a net 70 pips higher over the past 24 hours and though Friday brings the welcome distraction of some UK economic data (manufacturing production, construction output and the trade balance) it is politics and Ireland which will again dominate the whole day ahead.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The CAD fell again on Thursday as local media reflected further on the more dovish comments in the BoC Statement. It drew no support from an oil price which rallied around 70 cents on the day with NYMEX crude finishing around $56.70 per barrel. Nor did it benefit from the latest data from the construction sector. A 3.5% m/m increase in October building permits far exceeded consensus forecasts for a gain of 1.5% whilst September was upwardly revised to 4.9% from a previously reported 3.8% rise. Non-residential building permits jumped 5.5%, led by intentions for commercial buildings, as Quebec and Ontario planned more warehouses and office buildings.<br> <br> Both provinces have seen their unemployment rates fall as their economies have picked up. Permits for industrial buildings also rose 14.2 percent on construction intentions for factories and plants in Alberta, which is recovering from the oil price shock two years ago.<br> <br> As for the purchasing managers survey, this shrank only very modestly from 63.8 to 63.0 in November whilst the gauge of employment rose to an adjusted 53.9 from 52.0, boding well for further job gains. As with the New Zealand Dollar, the Canadian Dollar did what it did on Thursday despite the data, not because of it. It opens in the APAC time zone this morning at USD1.2860 and AUD/CAD0.9655.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro continued to grind lower in Thursday’s European morning session without getting any support from further strength in incoming economic data. The morning brought the final estimate of third quarter Eurozone GDP which fleshes out the provisional numbers in a little more detail. The very encouraging feature of Q2 had been a 2.2% jump in investment spending. Q3 has added to this with a further 1.1% gain. Household consumption and investment both contributed around 0.2% to the 0.6% q/q total, with net trade and government both contributing +0.05% and inventories 0.1%.<br> <br> Within the Eurozone, the fastest quarterly growth rates were registered in Malta (+1.8%) Slovenia (+1.0%) and Cyprus (+0.9%) whilst the slowest were Belgium, Estonia and Greece (+0.3%). Broadening the analysis to the EU 28, Romania grew a hugely impressive 2.6% q/q whilst at the other end of the table, Denmark was the only economy which contracted in Q3. From its low point at lunchtime of USD1.1778, the EUR then rallied 25 pips and got back on to a 1.18 handle in the New York session before giving up all its gains into the close; another very frustrating day for trend and momentum traders and equally difficult for those who place more weight on fundamental indicators. AUD/EUR begins in Sydney this morning at 0.6378 with NZD/EUR at 0.5800.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The Kiwi Dollar continues to frustrate and defy analysis, swinging from top to bottom in the daily performance tables almost at random. On Thursday it shared with the AUD the wooden spoon for worst performing currency, even though the economic data has actually been pretty solid. The job vacancy numbers Tuesday were sound and Wednesday we learned that building activity in the Wellington region grew strongly over the past year.<br> <br> Yesterday, Stats NZ reported that seasonally adjusted total wholesale trade sales value rose 1.1 percent in the September 2017 quarter, after rising 1.6 percent in the June 2017 quarter. This was the sixth consecutive quarterly rise, driven mainly driven by fruit exports and grocery wholesaling. With a half decent dairy auction too, after 4 consecutive declines, it would have been reasonable to expect the NZD to outperform the AUD but that’s not how it turned out.<br> <br> NZD/USD ended the New York session at its low of the day at USD0.6825. Today we’ll get the last of the so-called ‘partial data’ which feed in to the GDP data as Stats NZ release the survey of manufacturing for the September quarter at 10.45am local time. GDP itself isn’t released until December 21st; more than 10 weeks after the end of the quarter.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The USD Dollar very marginally extended its gains for a fourth consecutive day on Thursday. It’s index against a basket of major currencies reached a 2-week high of 93.43 late in the London morning before closing in New York around 93.40. It was helped by a stock market which regained its losses of the last two sessions and by a decent set of weekly jobless claims figures ahead of Friday’s November labour market report.<br> <br> Initial claims for state unemployment benefits slipped 2,000 to a seasonally adjusted 236,000 for the week ended Dec. 2, the Labor Department said. Data for the prior week was unrevised. It was the third straight weekly decline in claims and was the 144th straight week that claims remained below the 300,000 threshold. That is the longest such stretch since 1970, when the labour market was of course much smaller. According to a Reuters survey, non-farm payrolls probably increased by 200,000 in November after surging 261,000 in October.<br> <br> Job growth in October was boosted by the return to work of thousands of employees, mostly in low-wage industries like hospitality and retail, who had been temporarily dislocated by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. The unemployment rate is expected to remain steady at 4.1%. Markets usually approach the monthly US labour market report in a state of eager anticipation but it’s hard to see anything – however dramatic – shifting the Fed from a 25bp hike next week. More of the same hasn’t been a bad backdrop for the stock market in 2017 and equities need to advance less than 1% to be back at fresh all-time highs. The USD should continue to find support if stocks hold up.

By Nick Parsons

AUD ends Wednesday at the day’s lows, GBP still hit by Brexit worries, CAD falls after BoC meeting


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Aussie Dollar had a bad day on Wednesday and is now almost a full cent lower against the US Dollar than Tuesday’s best level of 0.7650. Worse than expected Q3 GDP figures immediately knocked the pair from 0.7607 down to 0.7580 and after stabilizing during the European morning (without ever managing to get back on to a US 76 cents big figure) the AUS was hit for a further 30 pips in the New York session.<br> <br> Most analysts’ forecasts had pinned Q3 GDP growth around 0.7-0.8% q/q so the headline gain of just 0.6% was a clear miss. The annual rate of growth had been expected at 3.0% but printed only at 2.8%. The main culprit was the household expenditure category which struggled to grow at all and rose just 0.1% q/q. This weakness is due to a combination of very soft earnings growth and some nervousness over personal finances and the residential property market. A deeper dive into the GDP figures shows that the savings rate increased from 3.0% to 3.2%; the first increase since Q2 2016.<br> <br> This morning locally, we’ll get the Performance of Construction index and the October trade balance but sentiment internationally towards the AUD is pretty negative and it still seems easier to knock it down than to push it higher. By close of business Wednesday, the Aussie had fallen against everything except a very weak Canadian Dollar. USD0.7540 is now the very important technical support level to watch.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound’s volatility continues so for our Antipodean clients, let’s try to summarise the situation as it currently stands. UK Prime Minister Theresa May leads a minority government which has entered into a formal Coalition with Northern Ireland’s Democratic Unionist Party in order to get the 326 seats it needs for a majority in the House of Commons. Before Brexit negotiations can move to a second phase after an EU Leaders’ Summit on December 14, the UK and EU must agree on a customs arrangement, the size of the divorce bill and the rights of EU nationals living in Britain. The last two of these appear settled.<br> <br> However, the question of the Irish border is fiendishly complicated, due to the historical troubles between Northern Ireland and the Republic. The Dublin Government insists on an open border with complete freedom of movement and no physical controls. The UK agrees with this in principle but there will still have to be a border somewhere in the UK. The DUP is implacably opposed to anything which it sees a dilution of the territorial integrity and rights of the United Kingdom. It will not accept a border with mainland Britain. That is its’ whole reason for existence as a political party in Northern Ireland.<br> <br> With the clock ticking down, either something has to give or the Brexit talks could collapse, bringing the UK Government down with it. We said in our London comment yesterday morning that from its opening level of USD1.3425, the GBP could move as much as 3-4% in either direction depending on whether there’s movement to a transition Brexit deal or the collapse of the Coalition Government and a fresh General Election. So far, GBP has moved 0.5% lower and opens in Sydney today at USD1.3370 and AUD1.7675.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar’s strong run came to an abrupt end on Wednesday after the Bank of Canada’s final monetary policy meeting of the year. Its review of incoming economic data noted they were, “in line with October’s outlook, which was for growth to moderate while remaining above potential in the second half of 2017. Employment growth has been very strong and wages have shown some improvement, supporting robust consumer spending in the third quarter. Business investment continued to contribute to growth after a strong first half, and public infrastructure spending is becoming more evident in the data. Following exceptionally strong growth earlier in 2017, exports declined by more than was expected in the third quarter.<br> <br> However, the latest trade data support the MPR projection that export growth will resume as foreign demand strengthens. Housing has continued to moderate, as expected”. There was nothing too troubling in that assessment. Instead, the CAD was hit by the line that, “While higher interest rates will likely be required over time, the Governing Council will continue to be cautious, guided by incoming data in assessing the economy’s sensitivity to interest rates, the evolution of economic capacity, and the dynamics of both wage growth and inflation”.<br> <br> After its recent strong run and with traders positioned for a hawkish BoC surprise, the CAD fell sharply. USD/CAD rose from 1.2665 to nearly 1.2800 whilst AUD/CAD and NZD/CAD rose 25 and 70 pips respectively. The Canadian Dollar opens in the APAC time zone this morning at USD1.2795 and AUD/CAD0.9675.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro had another poor day on Wednesday losing around 60 pips from its best level in Sydney of USD1.1844 to trade down to a 2-week low of 1.1781 with AUD/EUR at 0.6412. The drop came despite figures showing German factory orders climbed in October for the third month in a row, confounding expectations of a decline.<br> <br> Factory orders increased 0.5% in October from the previous month, according to the Federal Statistics Office. September’s gain was also revised higher to 1.2% m/m from a previous reading of 1.0%. Details of the report showed orders from companies within Germany increased 0.4%, while international orders were up 0.5%. The international component was led by firms outside of the eurozone, where orders increased 1.6%.<br> <br> Clearly, there’s still plenty of demand for the very high-quality consumer goods, autos and machinery for which Germany is so deservedly famous. Elsewhere in Wednesday’s batch of data releases, Eurozone Retail PMI improved to 52.4 points in November, its highest level since June. The problem for the EUR continues to be that whilst the economic news is almost without exception positive, it is well known and already ‘in the price’. Traders are reluctant either to sell dips or to buy into the rallies so we’re left in a familiar USD1.1750-1.1930 range unless and until some genuine ‘news’ hits the screens.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

‘Turnaround Tuesday’ for the Kiwi Dollar didn’t quite morph into Wonderful Wednesday though there was some very good price action against both the Aussie and Canadian Dollars and the British Pound. Just 36 hours ago, AUD/NZD was trading at 1.11 but it spent a fair amount of time yesterday at 1.09 after the disappointing Australian GDP numbers.<br> <br> Locally in New Zealand on Wednesday we saw the ANZ job vacancy numbers inch down 0.1% in November from the previous month. Despite this slip – which was the first drop in four months - job ads remain near historic highs as the country experiences a skilled labour shortage. Annual job ads growth in Canterbury and Wellington eased to 6% and 8% respectively while Auckland is slowly heading towards a broadly flat outturn.<br> <br> Separate numbers released yesterday from Stats NZ (the snappily titled official statisticians) showed Building activity in the Wellington region has grown strongly over the past year. The value of activity rose 27 percent on the previous September year – the largest annual increase ever recorded for Wellington. In the year ended September 2017, the value of building work put in place in the region totalled $1.7 billion (up $0.4 billion), almost tripling the growth rate seen in 2015. Though the NZD lost ground steadily from its overnight best level of USD0.6913, it ended the New York session little changed from this time yesterday at 0.6873, with the AUD/NZD cross down at 1.1000.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The USD Dollar rose for a second consecutive day on Wednesday. Its’ index against a basket of major currencies opened around 93.00 and having slipped to 92.85 on worries about the stock market, it then had a steady and pretty much uninterrupted rise to a best level of 93.30 before closing in New York around 93.25 as stocks found some support.<br> <br> The USD at the moment seems unusually well-correlated to movements in equity markets both at home and abroad. The average daily move on the S+P 500 for the last three months has been barely 0.2% either way so although Tuesday’s 0.4% drop was not large by historical standards it was poor in the context of the last three months’ price action. To put this into perspective, the S+P 500 index on average has fallen by at least 5% on three or four occasions every year over the past decade. It hasn’t now done so at all during 2017.<br> <br> But, before jumping to the conclusion that a decent correction must now be imminent, note that December has not been the weakest month of any year going all the way back to 1928. It’s not just US equity markets which are under the spotlight at the moment: Asia’s equivalent of America’s FANG stocks, the so-called TATS (Taiwan Semi, Alibaba, Tencent and Samsung) have been down for 7 consecutive days with a cumulative drop over 10%. Keep a close eye on equities globally as the outlook for stocks (and bonds) is an important element of the investment case for the US Dollar. Technical support on the USD index at 92.5 then last Monday’s low of 92.2 are the key levels to watch.

By Nick Parsons

More Brexit nerves for GBP; NZD now top of the pile with AUD mixed after RBA Statement


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

We said here yesterday about the RBA Board meeting that, “Re-reading the November 7th Statement, it is not obvious which paragraphs need much of a tweak either way”. Putting the December Statement side-by-side with it, you’d need a magnifying glass to discern much of a difference.<br> <br> “Recent data suggest that the Australian economy grew at around its trend rate over the year to the September quarter. The central forecast is for GDP growth to average around 3 per cent over the next few years. Business conditions are positive and capacity utilisation has increased. The outlook for non-mining business investment has improved further, with the forward-looking indicators being more positive than they have been for some time… Employment growth has been strong over 2017 and the unemployment rate has declined. Employment has been rising in all states and has been accompanied by a rise in labour force participation. The various forward-looking indicators continue to point to solid growth in employment over the period ahead.”<br> <br> The Aussie Dollar did well through Tuesday’s Sydney session but the day’s high of USD0.7650 came just before London traders arrived at work and it was downhill all the way from there against a generally better-bid US Dollar. By the New York close, the pair was struggling to hold on to a 76 cents handle though the AUD had made net gains against the CAD, GBP and EUR.<br> <br> The big number today will be Q3 GDP with most analysts’ forecasts centering on a 0.7-0.8% q/q increase to leave the year-on-year rate at 3.0%. Famous last words, but the read-across to the AUD should be quite straightforward and we can get on with the serious business of watching the cricket.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The volatility in the British Pound shows no sign of abating. Though the Kiwi Dollar goes up one day and down the next, the GBP does it both in the same day! It jumped then plunged on Monday on news that UK Prime Minister Theresa May was unable to offer an agreement on the Irish border issue to European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker. On Tuesday it fell further then rallied in the belief that a form of words would somehow be found by the end of the week to bring the Government’s Ulster Unionist coalition partners back with their support. GBP/USD fell to lows during the London morning of USD1.3384 and AUD1.7505 but by the New York close it had recovered to USD1.3440 and AUD1.7685.<br> <br> The London-Dublin agreement on so-called “regulatory alignment” post-Brexit may have looked a clever form of words but Arlene Foster, the DUP leader, said that they spent five weeks trying to get hold of a draft text of the UK-EU Brexit deal and that, when it finally saw it yesterday, it was a big shock. “When we looked at the wording and had seen the import of all that we knew we couldn’t sign up to anything that was in that text that would allow a border to develop in the Irish Sea.” When it was put to her that the Irish Government has said it would not budge on the substance of these matters, she said, “The Irish prime minister can be as unequivocal as he likes. We’re also unequivocal in relation to these matters.”<br> <br> Somewhere, it seems, there’ll be tears before Friday and they might well be shed as much by foreign exchange traders as by angry politicians. It’s a big call but the GBP could move as much as 3-4% in either direction depending on whether there’s movement to a transition Brexit deal or the collapse of the Coalition Government and a fresh General Election.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

After a 2-day surge, the Canadian Dollar had a more mixed performance on Tuesday; rising against the GBP and CAD but falling against the US, Kiwi and Aussie Dollars. It finally decoupled from the oil price somewhat, rising as crude fell during the European morning and reversing course thereafter. Its’ early strong performance was related to comments from Prime Minister Justin Trudeau that he and his counterparts in China have made good progress on a free trade deal, though no details about substance were forthcoming.<br> <br> Looking forward, the Bank of Canada holds its 8th and final monetary policy meeting of the year on Wednesday. Compared to the economic situation at its last meeting in October, retail sales, the labor market, housing market, manufacturing activity, trade and oil prices have all improved somewhat though inflation has eased a bit lower. Before last week’s stunning employment numbers, markets were pricing around a 47% probability of a rate hike in January. This has now risen to a little over 50% and the Canadian Dollar opens in the APAC time zone this morning at USD1.2692 and AUD/CAD0.9655.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro had a poor day Tuesday, losing almost half a cent to the USD to finish around 1.1813 and falling against every other currency to take the wooden spoon in the one-day performance table. This came despite figures which confirmed the eurozone service sector registered quicker output growth in November, with the final PMI matching the flash estimate of 56.2.<br> <br> The final Eurozone composite index was also confirmed at 57.5 with the Press release noting breathlessly, “The rate of euro area economic expansion moved up a gear in November. Output growth accelerated to the fastest in over six-and-a-half years, while rates of increase for all of the main survey indicators covering demand, employment and inflation also hit multi-year highs… Growth was again led by a resurgent manufacturing sector. Manufacturing production rose at the quickest pace in almost seven years in November and the headline index from the manufacturing survey – the Manufacturing PMI – posted a level bettered only once in its 20-year history.”

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

Foreign exchange can be a very frustrating asset class at times. Having ended Monday as the worst performer of the major currencies we track here, it was very much a case of ‘Turnaround Tuesday’. The New Zealand Dollar finished top of yesterday’s FX pile even though arguably very little has changed other than RBNZ Acting Governor Grant Spencer’s speech on “Low inflation and its implications for monetary policy”.<br> <br> He told the Institute of Directors in Auckland a series of factors "may be reducing the leverage monetary policy has over inflation" and said the bank's flexible inflation targeting approach is becoming more flexible and relatively more weight is being attached to "output, employment, and financial stability." The Governor painted different scenarios where both rate cuts and rate hikes might be necessary, but said the central bank is now "assuming greater persistence in low global inflation" and that is contributing to its current flat interest rate track. The RBNZ’s latest forecasts show it doesn't expect to raise rates until mid-2019 at the earliest.<br> <br> The NZD rose from USD0.6860 to a high of 0.6907 overnight during local trading hours Tuesday and though NZD/USD subsequently gave back around 30 pips of these gains to a stronger USD, the Kiwi ended the Northern Hemisphere day up against every currency. For Wednesday, the confidence of NZD traders in predicting movement either way is probably no more than a coin-toss. It could once again just as easily finish top or bottom of the pile…

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar had a good day on Tuesday. It’s index against a basket of major currencies rose from 92.75 to 93.11; its best level in almost two weeks. It gained some support early in the day from a rally in equity index futures but as stock market enthusiasm faded, a weaker GBP and EUR helped the USD rise almost by default. The latest reading on the service sector of the US economy did no harm either, signaling the 95th consecutive month of expansion in activity. The headline index fell 2.7 points to a still-elevated 57.4 whilst the business activity sub-index slipped just 0.8 to 61.4; reflecting growth for the 100th consecutive month. New orders and export orders were at 58.7 and 57.0 respectively whilst employment slipped a couple of points to 55.3.<br> <br> One of the really good but somewhat obscure indicators of the US economy is a model developed by the Atlanta Fed. This takes incoming high-frequency US economic data and updates in real-time its forecast of the current quarter’s GDP number. As Tuesday brought not just the ISM survey, but also the merchandise trade deficit for October, they published a new forecast of Q4 GDP yesterday evening; downgrading their estimate from 3.5% to 3.2%. This is still a pretty decent number; higher than anywhere else in G7 and helps to support bond yields and the US Dollar into next weeks FOMC meeting.

By Nick Parsons

Another choppy day for GBP on Brexit talks; NZD is the bottom of the pile as AUD awaits RBA Meeting


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

Away from Adelaide, the big event of today is of course the last of the year’s eleven RBA Board meetings. Re-reading the November 7th Statement, it is not obvious which paragraphs need much of a tweak either way.<br> <br> On Melbourne Cup day a month ago, the RBA noted, “The Bank's forecasts for growth in the Australian economy are largely unchanged. The central forecast is for GDP growth to pick up and to average around 3 per cent over the next few years. Business conditions are positive and capacity utilisation has increased… The labour market has continued to strengthen. Employment has been rising in all states and has been accompanied by a rise in labour force participation. The various forward-looking indicators continue to point to solid growth in employment over the period ahead”. If that assessment left them to leave interest rates unchanged with no forward bias, it’s reasonable to assume exactly the same outcome today.<br> <br> There’s probably a bigger discussion about what biscuits to have with the morning coffee than what to say about monetary policy. For the first 24 hours of the week, AUD/USD has traded in a range between 0.7584 and 0.7613 and has spent roughly equal amounts of time on 75 and 76 cents ‘big figures’. It finished Monday down against the USD and CAD, little changed against the EUR and a very volatile GBP, but up against the NZD.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

There seems no end to the volatility in the British Pound. It traded lower through Monday’s Asia session on fears that the Brexit talks might stall over the vexed question of the Irish border. The Republic of Ireland says it will veto a ‘hard border’ with Northern Ireland but the UK Conservatives’ coalition partner in Government, Ulster’s Democratic Unionists (DUP) object to any border being placed between them and the rest of the UK.<br> <br> At lunchtime in London, ahead of Prime Minister Theresa May’s meeting with European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, EU Chief negotiator Michel Barnier told MEP’s that “a breakthrough is likely. GBP/USD jumped from 1.3423 to 1.3535 with GBP/AUD up from 1.7650 to 1.7790 and a Press Conference was scheduled in Brussels for 4pm. This proved a very short and very tense affair in which Mrs May said a deal had not been agreed. Although no reason was given, it was clear that the DUP had vetoed it and the GBP gave back almost all its gains as quickly as it had earlier made them.<br> <br> Irish PM Leo Varadkar said, “The responsibility of any Prime Minister is to ensure that they can follow through on agreements that they make and we are surprised and disappointed that they haven’t been able to”. Unfortunately for the GBP, the more it looks as though a deal was made in Dublin, the more likely it is to be rejected by the Unionists north of the border. Talks are scheduled to continue later this week and the GBP is likely to be bounced around from one Twitter headline to the next. It opens in Sydney this morning at USD1.3455 and AUD1.7720 but be wary of a great deal on intra-day volatility throughout the next 24 hours and indeed right through to the end of the week.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

Canadian Dollar traders were able to pause for breath Monday after the enormous swings of Friday afternoon. The good news has been the general resilience of the currency in the face of a 90 cents drop in crude oil prices. NYMEX crude began the week at $58.35 but fell steadily in each time zone to finish in New York around $57.46. Despite this drop, USD/CAD closed barely 20 pips above its opening level in North America of 1.2685, whilst AUD/CAD was almost exactly unchanged on the day at 0.9650.<br> <br> Looking forward, the Bank of Canada holds its 8th and final monetary policy meeting of the year on Thursday. Compared to the economic situation at its last meeting in October, retail sales, the labor market, housing market, manufacturing activity, trade and oil prices have all improved somewhat though inflation has eased a bit lower. Markets are pricing around a 50% probability of a rate hike in January. Though they could react quite sharply to any clear steer from Governor Poloz, it’s hard to imagine much more volatility for the CAD than we saw at the very end of last week…

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro has traded gradually lower today, though the ranges have been tight and it would be wise to look at the numbers on the ‘y axis’ of any chart before leaping to unwarranted conclusions about its weakness. The facts are that it began the week 24 hours ago at USD1.1865 and having touched a low of 1.1838 during the New York morning, it finished the day within 10 pips of where it started.<br> <br> The only economic indicator of note in the European session was the Sentix Eurozone economic confidence indicator. This slipped more than had been expected in December to 31.1 from 34.0, though it should be noted that November was the highest since July 2007. The assessment of the current situation strengthened to the highest level in more than 10 years, while expectations weakened notably to a 4-month low in December.<br> <br> Looking forward, Tuesday brings the various PMI service sector indices across the Eurozone whilst Wednesday it’s German factory orders and on Thursday we have German industrial production. The simple problem for the EUR at present is that whilst the economic news is almost without exception positive, it is well known and already ‘in the price’. It takes a stunning set of incoming data to produce a genuine shock. Once we get beyond today’s PMI’s the economic calendar is pretty much empty for the rest of the week whilst the ECB falls silent after Wednesday ahead of the December 14th Council Meeting. In the world of foreign exchange, something usually turns up to shatter the calm but for the EUR right now, it’s genuinely difficult to see what that might be.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar had a quieter day Monday, although quiet doesn’t mean good. Having opened around USD0.6870, it traded in a 30 pip range from 0.6841 to 0.6871 before finishing close to the day’s low to be the worst performer of all the major currencies we track here. The AUD/NZD cross rose half a cent, while NZD/USD and NZD/CAD both fell half a cent.<br> <br> This poor day for the Kiwi Dollar came despite analysts at Swiss bank UBS putting out a bullish recommendation on the currency which they described as the cheapest in G10. “As the Chinese economy continues its rebalancing away from investment-led growth and toward increased consumption, the country’s import patterns will change with obvious knock on effects for its key trading partners… New Zealand is a clear beneficiary, given the importance of agricultural products (milk and meat) to its economy and exports. New Zealand exports virtually no investment goods to China, so there no offsetting loss from a deterioration in these exports”. All the major global banks’ ‘2018 Outlooks’ are hitting the street around now, but this is one of the more bullish views from an offshore player.<br> <br> Back to the more mundane incoming economic data locally, this week brings some of the ‘partial’ data which then feed into GDP on December 21st. Today it’s Building Work, Thursday is Wholesale Trade and Friday is the Manufacturing Survey. RBNZ Acting Governor Grant Spencer is delivering what will be a very closely-watched speech tomorrow on “Low inflation and its implications for monetary policy”; the text of which will be released at 1.15pm local time today. NZD/USD opens at 0.6845 with the AUD/NZD cross at 1.1090.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar had a decent day on Monday as stock markets rallied and some of the more excitable Trump chatter from Friday subsided. Indeed, at one point, the Dow Jones Industrial Average was trading 500 points above Friday’s intra-day low whilst the S&P 500 Index was almost 60 points higher. Against this very positive asset market backdrop, the USD index rose back to 93.0, and gained against most of the major currencies we follow here.<br> <br> In the version of the tax reform bill which passed in the Senate by 51-49 votes on Friday, the proposed cut in the tax rate on repatriation of overseas deferred profits was pretty much reversed. The original proposal had provided for a 10 percent deemed repatriation tax rate for cash and 5 percent for other profits but in a late change, the Senate increased the tax rate on the deemed repatriation of currently deferred foreign profits to 14.5 percent for cash and cash-equivalent earnings and 7.5 percent for other profits, almost matching the House bill’s 14 and 7 percent rates.<br> <br> Going forward, this is a much less USD-positive story than had been previously expected. For the immediate future, the focus for FX markets is on the ISM non-manufacturing index. Any number close to October’s bumper 60.1 would surely be USD positive.

By Nick Parsons

RBA meets on Tuesday, BoC on Thursday. Currencies had a wild day on Friday; will it be calmer this week?


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Aussie Dollar really came back from the dead in the final few hours of trading last week. Whether the economic numbers were poor (consumer confidence) or pretty good (Q3 capex), the AUD edged steadily and continuously lower.<br> <br> AUD/USD opened the week around 0.7610 and by Wednesday morning it was down at 0.7557, having fallen against most of the major currencies. By Friday, AUD/USD had steadied in the mid-upper 0.75’s but GBP/AUD had jumped almost 4 cents to a near 18-month high of 1.79 in the very trading session of the week came the Flynn/Trump/FBI story, which initially slammed stocks and the USD lower. Though stocks recovered most of their losses into the close of business, the US didn’t. With the British Pound also showing some nerves around the survival of the Coalition government, AUD/USD finished the week where it began at 0.7610 whilst GBP/AUD lost almost two cents from its high to finish at 1.7705.<br> <br> For the week ahead, the immediate focus is on Tuesday’s RBA meeting then the big data release of Q3 GDP (which the folks in Martin Place will already have had sight of). Three hours ahead of the RBA will also have October’s retail sales numbers which will give us an idea of how Q4 is beginning to shape up.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The GBP had the wildest time of all last week, surging to multi-month highs against the ‘Commonwealth Currencies’ and from Tuesday’s low point against the US Dollar, it then advanced more than three cents. The political focus was initially on the possibility that the Brexit Secretary could be held in contempt of Parliament. GBP/USD held steady around 1.3330 but moved sharply lower Tuesday when the Bank of England’s Financial Stability Report highlighted many of the downside risks to the UK economy and its banking system.<br> <br> GBP/USD hit a session low late in the afternoon of 1.3230 before the totally unexpected headlines that “Britain and EU agree Brexit Divorce Bill”. As these allayed fears of a collapse of the negotiations, the British Pound surged. GBP/USD rose to 1.3375 in a matter of minutes whilst GBP/AUD jumped from 1.7370 to just over 1.76. The move extended into Thursday and by Friday morning Sydney time, the GBP hit USD1.3540 and AUD1.7900. We began to sound a note of caution after this move, largely because of talk of some unrest from Conservative MP’s about the size of the Brexit bill, but also because of talk about an Irish border agreement which looked to be unacceptable to the Government’s DUP Coalition partners.<br> <br> Over this last weekend, Theresa May’s Social Mobility heads resigned en masse whilst a group of Conservative MP’s and ex-Ministers calling themselves ‘Leave Means Leave’ have set out a list of conditions upon which they threaten to base their support. The huge optimism of last Thursday already seems a fading memory. We’ll have to see now whether Friday’s late sell-off in GBP (which took it down to USD1.3475 and AUD1.7700 is extended further).

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar just had an incredible week. Ahead of the 173rd OPEC meeting in Vienna, it spent the first three days tracking an ever-lower oil price. There are usually some hints and rumours and leaks about production cutbacks but as none of these were forthcoming, NYMEX crude fell to $57.30, the CAD was sold heavily and USD/CAD reached 1.29 for the first time in 5 months.<br> <br> From 1600GMT on Thursday afternoon, oil rallied 75 cents and by the New York open on Friday was back up at $58.75. This alone was offering some support the CAD, but then came a stunning Canadian labour market report. Consensus expectations were for an increase in November employment of around 10,000. Instead, a total of 79,500 jobs were added, pushing average earnings up from 2.4% y/y to 2.7%. By the end of the North American session, with the US Dollar in retreat on the Trump/Flynn story, USD/CAD had suffered its biggest daily drop in 21 months. The pair crashed from 1.2900 to close at 1.2684 with the CAD surging against every currency. AUD/CAD fell a full cent to 0.9650 whilst NZD/CAD fell 80 pips to 0.8745.<br> <br> The Bank of Canada holds its 8th and final monetary policy meeting of the year on Thursday, though for the CAD it’s hard to imagine much more volatility than we saw at the very end of last week.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The last week was a very frustrating time for those analysing or trading the Single European Currency. It had a whole series of reversals in both directions before ending the week very slightly lower against the USD at 1.1900. AUD/EUR traded an 80 pip range between 0.6380 and 0.6420 and a 60 pip rally off the low on Friday actually saw the Aussie finish higher on the week; something which had looked extremely unlikely when traders in Sydney pulled stumps.<br> <br> The EUR had to contend with the labyrinthine uncertainties around a new German coalition along with conflicting inflation reports across the Eurozone; stronger CPI in Germany but weaker in Italy. Economic indicators were uniformly very positive but the bar of expectations is already set very high and the news wasn’t sufficiently greater than consensus expectations to give the EUR much of a lift. As we described it on Thursday, “Foreign exchange is supposed to be a ‘zero sum game’. Sometimes, though, it just feels there are more losers than winners. For EUR/USD, this is one of those weeks”.<br> <br> Looking forward, Tuesday brings the various PMI service sector indices across the Eurozone whilst Wednesday it’s German factory orders and on Thursday we have German industrial production. Ahead of the Council Meeting on December 14th, we may get a few ECB speakers early in the week but otherwise it all seems pretty quiet. There is no need for the Central Bank to give any signals one way or another and they’ll be pretty happy if traders endure another frustrating week of little net change for the EUR.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar had a pretty wild time last week. AUD/NZD broke down on Monday from the relatively tight 1.1060-1.1120 range which had contained it for 3 or4 days previously. The break triggered a series of NZD buy orders across a whole range of currencies and it finished the day by some distance the best performer of all the majors.<br> <br> NZD/USD moved up from 0.6855 on Monday to a high of 0.6940 on Tuesday as the positive momentum continued. Wednesday’s Financial Stability Report and the comments by Acting RBNZ Governor Spencer came and went without drama but the big shock for the NZD came Thursday with a very weak ANZ business outlook report. This showed New Zealand business confidence has tumbled to its weakest since the global financial crisis amid uncertainty over the policies of a new center-left government. A net 39.3 percent of firms expected the economy to deteriorate in the next 12 months; down from 10.1 percent in October and the lowest reading since March 2009. NZD/USD tumbled half a cent to 0.6835 then on Friday it extended losses to 0.6828. When the Flynn/Trump/FBI story broke in New York, however, the pair jumped to 0.6890 and – as with the Aussie Dollar - it ended the week almost exactly unchanged.<br> <br> Looking forward, its still a very long wait to the Q3 GDP figures on December 21st (more than 2 weeks after Australia) but in the meantime we’ll have some of the ‘partial’ data which then feed into the number. Tuesday is Building Work, Thursday is Wholesale Trade and Friday is the Manufacturing Survey. It will be tough to repeat last week’s dramas for the NZD but in Foreign Exchange, we learn never to say never!

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

After a poor Thanksgiving holiday on FOMC concerns about an upturn in inflation, the USD did a bit better last week. The earlier negative momentum dragged its index down to a low of 92.20 on Monday morning but this proved to be the low of the week. Stronger economic reports (house prices and consumer confidence) and fresh all-time highs for the US stock market helped lift the Dollar index to a high of 93.1 on Friday morning.<br> <br> Fed Governor Jerome Powell’s Senate Confirmation hearing proceeded smoothly on Tuesday whilst outgoing Chair Janet Yellen then sounded a bit more certain about the economy and inflation. The closely watched PCE numbers were exactly in line with consensus expectations at 1.4% y/y and the S+P 500 index hit a high of 2653 on Thursday. If the week had finished on Friday morning, it would have been a success for both the USD and the equity market.<br> <br> Instead, as the Trump/Flynn story broke, the USD index fell half a percent and at one point the S+P was 25 points lower. Every stock trader now knows that dips are for buying: the market regained all its losses in the last couple of hours and though some way off its best levels, the USD finished a net three-tenths of a point higher on the week at 92.57. The Fed is about to enter radio silence ahead of the Dec 12-13 FOMC meeting so the immediate focus for FX markets this Monday morning is Trump/Flynn and tax reform before attention shifts to the delayed payroll numbers at the end of the week.

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