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By Nick Parsons

RBA Minutes and jobs report will be local highlights this week. US FOMC expected to hike rates 25bp.


AUD

Expected Range

The Australian Dollar rose for three days of last week then fell for the final two with a net loss from the previous Friday’s close around 1 ¼ cents. For the early part of the week, continuing the price action seen since the US non-farm payrolls report was published ten days ago, the AUD tracked risk sentiment very closely. Indeed, on Wednesday, the high of the US equity market coincided almost exactly (in fact within 10 minutes) with the high of the AUD/USD exchange rate at 0.7905. The AUD managed to stay on a US 79 cents ‘big figure’ for less than two hours, however, and by Thursday afternoon in New York it was trading on a 77 handle. Its close on Friday just above 0.7710 was the lowest since Christmas. <br><br> After the mixed messages from surveys of business activity and the GDP report – explained in part, by the different time periods which they covered – investors will now be focusing solely on Q1 data. The most important of those this week will be the February labour market report on Thursday. Last time around, there was a 16k increase in employment comprised of a 50k drop in full-time employment and a 66k increase in part-time work. The unemployment rate fell one-tenth to 5.5%. For the February numbers, consensus estimates are for a 20k increase in employment which just about keeps pace with demographic change to leave the jobless rate steady at 5.5%. Sadly, we don’t get monthly wage price data from the official statisticians so we’ll get only a partial answer to the question of how household expenditure is likely to be holding up. <br><br> Before the labour report, on Tuesday we’ll get to see the Minutes from the latest RBA Board meeting. There’s unlikely to be any great surprise here, as the key message from the Central Bank recently has been one of steady and gradual improvement towards its goals on inflation and economic growth. The currency won’t have been causing any problems, there are no imminent financial stability risks from the housing market and though trade tensions globally are on the rise, Australia is not one of the countries most threatened by them. The Australian Dollar opens in Asia this morning having closed on Friday at USD0.7710, with AUD/NZD at 1.0690 and GBP/AUD1.8075.

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound had a good week, finishing up against a generally well-bid US Dollar and gaining against every one of the major currencies we follow here. Tuesday was the Chancellor’s well-received Spring Statement and by Wednesday in Asia, GBP/USD hit a best level of 1.3995. Trading was quite volatile on Thursday and Friday but the GBP finished only half a cent down from the week’s high and almost a cent up from Monday’s opening level. GBP/AUD hit 1.80 for the first time since June last year whilst GBP/NZD hit a one-week high of 1.93. <br><br> The UK media is still totally focused on a diplomatic row between the UK and Russia, with the weekend’s political TV talking of little else but that and an unseasonably cold spell of late-Winter weather which brought rare mid-March snow to much of the country. According to a somewhat alarmist report in The Guardian newspaper, “Banks, energy and water companies are on maximum alert over the threat of a serious cyber-attack from Moscow as concern continues over the safety of Russian exiles in the UK. Fears that Russia will target Britain’s critical national infrastructure have prompted round-the-clock threat assessments by the UK’s financial sector, energy firms and GCHQ, the UK’s largest intelligence agency, along with the security services MI5 and MI6.” <br><br> For the week ahead, two main events look set to dominate financial markets. After its none-too-subtle warnings of a rate hike in May, the voting patterns at Thursday’s Bank of England MPC meeting will be scrutinised for further hints on signaling. Also beginning on Thursday is a two-day EU Summit in Brussels. The European Council is expected to officially sign off an agreement effectively extending Britain’s membership of the EU’s single market and customs union until December 31, 2020. Though there are still plenty of threats coming from both the UK and EU about what would happen in the event of no deal being agreed, many of the differences which existed over the terms of the transition period have been removed by the UK agreeing to all the demands made from Brussels on freedom of movement and citizens’ rights. The GBP opens in Asia this morning having closed on Friday at USD1.3945, GBP/AUD1.8075 and GBP/NZD1.9325.

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The EUR ended last week marginally lower against the USD, having followed the pattern of all the major currencies by rallying for the first half but then falling persistently through Thursday and Friday. EUR/USD opened on Monday at 1.2310 and added exactly one cent to a best level in Asia on Wednesday of 1.2410. As ECB officials took the opportunity to talk the currency lower, EUR/USD fell almost three-quarters of a cent on Thursday and on Friday afternoon hit an 8-day low of 1.2260 before then rallying around 30 pips into the New York close <br><br> Figures released on Friday showed the final Eurozone annual inflation rate was 1.1% in February 2018, down from 1.3% in January. This was one-tenth below the provisional estimate. The core rate excluding food and energy prices was unchanged at 1.0%, in line with the consensus and first estimate. Looking at the whole of the European Union rather than just those countries which use the euro currency, annual inflation was 1.3% in February 2018, down from 1.6% in January. The lowest annual rates were registered in Cyprus (-0.4%), Greece (0.4%), Denmark and Italy (both 0.5%). The highest annual rates were recorded in Romania (3.8%), Estonia and Lithuania (both 3.2%). Compared with January, annual inflation fell in eighteen Member States, remained stable in two and rose in seven. <br><br> With a still very subdued inflation backdrop, the main data for the week ahead will be survey-based. On Tuesday we have Germany’s ZEW survey of investor expectations, and on Thursday it’s the ifo Survey which has recently been incredibly upbeat in its numbers and commentary. Sandwiched between these are the so-called ‘flash PMI’s’ for manufacturing and service sector activity in France, Germany and the Eurozone. The ECB will publish its monthly Economic Bulletin on Thursday; something to which markets never used to pay attention but will which now be pored over for any signals hinting at a shift in monetary policy settings. The euro opens in Asia today after ending the week at USD1.2290, AUD/EUR0.6275 and NZD/EUR0.5875.

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar fell for 2 ½ days, rallied for 2 ½ days and ended a week of high political drama with its index against a basket of major currencies almost exactly unchanged. It opened on Monday at 89.75 but as stock index futures gave back a large part of the previous Friday’s gains ahead of US CPI figures on Tuesday, the USD index fell around a quarter of a point. The inflation numbers were then completely overshadowed by the firing of US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson which added to a sense of chaos in the Trump Administration and the USD fell to a low around 89.15. As the revolving door into government turned once more, former Bears Stearns economist and TV pundit Larry Kudlow was announced as the President’s Chief Economic Advisor. As he hit the financial TV studios talking up the USD, so it rallied to a best level of 89.95 before ending the week unchanged at 89.75. <br><br> One thing we can say for certain is that nothing is certain any more. As we look at calendars, diaries and schedules and try to pick out the highlights for financial markets, they can be quickly overtaken by events or one short Tweet from President Trump. The economic and political agenda is now more fluid and rapidly changing; something which itself will lead to an increase in volatility across asset classes. With this caveat in mind, the week’s main event that we thus far know of is the two-day FOMC meeting beginning on Tuesday. A new Statement, dot-points and economic projections will be available at 2pm Eastern Time on Wednesday and markets are pricing a 94.4% probability of a 25bp hike in rates; the sixth time rates have been raised since December 2015. Half an hour afterwards will be Jerome Powell’s first post-FOMC Press Conference and he’s sure to be grilled on his views on inflation, growth, tariffs and trade. <br><br> It may not be a hard and fast rule, but it’s a long-held tradition that only the Fed speaks about interest rates and only the US Treasury makes official comments on the Dollar. When asked about interest rates last week, however, Karry Kudlow said on TV, “the profit picture is good. It’s looking real good, and growth is not inflationary just let it rip for heaven's sakes. The market is going to take care of itself. The story takes care of itself let it rip. The Fed will do what it has to do, but I hope they don’t overdo it.” The USD index opens in Asia this Monday morning having ended last week at 89.75.

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar had a very poor week, the worst performer amongst the six major currencies we follow closely here. USD/CAD opened around 1.2820 and the pair fluctuated in a range 20 pips either side of this level for the next 36 hours as traders awaited a speech on Tuesday from Bank of Canada Governor Stephen Poloz. As the headlines hit the newswires USD/CAD jumped more than a full cent to 1.2970 and after a very soft set of housing numbers on Thursday and more talk of US tariffs, it broke 1.30 for the first time since June last year. GBP/CAD hit 1.82; its best level since the EU referendum 20 months ago whilst AUD/CAD and NZD/CAD registered 9-month highs. <br><br> In his major speech which focused on labour market slack, the Governor of the Bank of Canada said the country is at the “sweet spot” of the business cycle where growing demand is actually generating new capacity as companies invest to meet sales, a process he said the BoC has an “obligation” to nurture. On monetary policy, Mr. Poloz said, “It should be clear that there are likely to be significant economic benefits associated with allowing the economy to find its way to a higher, more productive economic equilibrium, if this can happen within our inflation-targeting regime… “We cannot know in advance how far the capacity-building process can go, but we have an obligation to allow it to occur.” It sounds like Mr Kudlow’s comments on the Fed have a very receptive audience north of the border. <br><br> Most of the important Canadian events come at the end of this week. On Thursday afternoon Senior Deputy Governor Carolyn Wilkins is scheduled to speak whilst on Friday we have retail sales and CPI numbers; a good chance to see just how much room Mr Poloz has to let the economy run a little hotter without tightening monetary policy. The Canadian Dollar opens in Asia this morning having ended the week at USD/CAD1.3095, AUD/CAD1.00100 and GBP/CAD1.8265.

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar had very similar price action to its Aussie cousin last week, though its peak on Wednesday came somewhat earlier during the day and the sell-off against the US Dollar on Friday was less marked; allowing the AUD/NZD cross to trade down on to a 1.06 ‘big’ figure by the New York close. Indeed, whilst AUD/NZD fell to its lowest since Christmas, NZD/USD only eased back to the lowest in 10 days, closing in New York around 0.7215; around 1 ¼ cents below its midweek peak. <br><br> The long-awaited Q4 GDP figures released last week fell short of consensus expectations. Most of the banks locally had penciled-in growth of 0.7% but the New Zealand economy actually grew 0.6% in the final three months of 2017, the same pace as the previous quarter. Although the year-on-year rate accelerated to 2.9%, it was also below the 3.1% expansion expected by economists. For the full year 2017, the economy grew by 2.9%, down from 4% in 2016. On Thursday this week, the RBNZ Board meeting will be the last under the interim leadership of Grant Spencer. Incoming Governor Adrian Orr takes up his post on March 27th and the big focus of attention will be the new Policy Targets Agreement. In an interview last week, Finance Minister Grant Robertson said, “I understand the limits of monetary policy, so we want [the Reserve Bank] to be considering maximising employment but, unlike a particular inflation target, we would not be seeking a particular employment target through monetary policy.” <br><br> The current PTA between the Government and Central Bank outlines the RBNZ’s commitment to keep inflation between 1% and 3% on average over the medium term, with a focus on keeping future average inflation near a 2% target midpoint. The 2% target was added when Graeme Wheeler took over in 2012; mainly to signal a symmetry of tolerance around a mid-point but also to underscore that a number persistently just under 3% would not be a desired outcome. Before the focus turns exclusively to the RBNZ, today we have the Performance of Services index, on Tuesday we get Westpac’s consumer confidence report and Wednesday brings the net migration numbers. The New Zealand Dollar opens in Asia this morning having closed on Friday at USD0.7220 and AUD/NZD1.0690.

By Nick Parsons

Aussie Dollar falls below US 78 cents as USD takes top spot on Thursday. Gold and industrial metals lower too.


GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound rose against all the major currencies apart from the US Dollar on Thursday, with gains extending to more than a full cent against both the Canadian and Australian Dollars. GBP/USD was volatile within a half cent range from 1.3930 to 1.3980 and ended the New York session pretty much near the middle of the day’s trading band. <br><br> With no fresh economic news and the UK media still totally focused on a diplomatic row between the UK and Russia, we can turn instead to a study by the Economist Intelligence Unit and reported in The Guardian which found that British cities have dropped to their cheapest levels internationally since at least the 1990s. It said the sharp fall in the pound after the EU referendum – still more than 6% lower than it was on the eve of the vote – had sent London and Manchester sharply down the rankings. Analysing a basket of more than 150 goods in 133 cities around the world, the report found London was now almost a third cheaper than Paris to visit, and almost a 10th cheaper than Dublin. The UK capital fell six places to 30th in the rankings for the most expensive city in Europe, while Manchester dropped five places to 56. Singapore retained the title as the world’s most expensive city for a fifth year running, while Paris and Zurich topped the list in Europe. <br><br> Quite how the diplomatic crisis between the UK and Russia plays out is impossible to predict, but it serves to show how even in an age of careful news-management, unforeseen events can introduce a huge degree of political and economic uncertainty into financial markets. The GBP opens in Asia this morning at USD1.3950, GBP/AUD1.7870 and GBP/NZD1.9170.

AUD

Expected Range

It seems we’re now going to have to watch financial TV as well as the POTUS Twitter feed for clues on economic policy. In his first TV appearance since being appointed chief economic adviser to US President Donald Trump, Larry Kudlow said, “I would buy King Dollar and I would sell gold.” Someone certainly listened to that advice as less than 24 hours later, the USD is up a quarter of a point and gold is down $6; neither of which have helped the Australian Dollar. AUD/USD was trading around 0.7870 during the London morning but by the New York afternoon had fallen to a low of just 0.7795; just a few pips above where it stood just before Friday’s US labour market report. <br><br> We mentioned last week that NAB scrapped one of the two RBA rate hikes in its forecast profile for 2018. Macquarie Bank is the latest local name to push back its forecast for the RBA’s first rate increase since late 2010, now seeing this in early 2019 rather than its previous forecast for August of this year. “The primary reason for pushing back our RBA call is that the Bank can err on the side of growing the economy faster for longer to erode spare capacity and have confidence that inflation is firmly moving back into the 2-3% target… After two years of below-target inflation, and at least another one to come, there seems little danger of generating a meaningful pick-up in inflation expectations from keeping interest rates low for longer.” Looking at short-term market interest rates, the implied probability that the RBA will deliver a 25 basis point rate increase by the end of this year is roughly 45%, a view that Macquarie describes as “about right.” <br><br> In the only incoming economic data, expected inflation as represented by the Melbourne Institute Survey of Consumer Inflationary Expectations, increased by 0.1 percentage points in March to 3.7% from 3.6% in February. Total pay growth over the 12 months to March 2018 increased to 2.0% from the December quarter reading of 1.5% although respondents appear cautious about future wage growth; expectations for pay growth in the next 12 months fell to 1.8% from 2.4% in the previous quarter. The Australian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7800, with AUD/NZD at 1.0720 and GBP/AUD1.7870.

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar outperformed its Aussie counterpart on Thursday with AUD/NZD falling from around 1.0775 in Asia to a low around 1.0720 late in the European afternoon. NZD/USD couldn’t hold on to a U73 cents ‘big figure’ and fell to 0.7275 which – like the AUD – takes it back to where it was just before last Friday’s US labour market report. <br><br> The long-awaited Q4 GDP figures released fell short of consensus expectations. Most of the banks locally had penciled-in growth of 0.7% but the New Zealand economy actually grew 0.6% in the final three months of 2017, the same pace as the previous quarter. Although the year-on-year rate accelerated to 2.9%, it was also below the 3.1% expansion expected by economists. For the full year 2017, the economy grew by 2.9%, down from 4% in 2016. According to the officials at StatsNZ, “Hot, dry weather appeared to have a negative impact this quarter on agriculture production, which fell 2.7%. Falling milk production was reflected in lower dairy manufacturing and dairy exports.” The statisticians said that household expenditure - the largest part of the New Zealand economy at around 60% - grew by 1.2% over the quarter. “Households ate out more and spent more on groceries and alcohol. This fueled increased retail trade activity, with food and beverage services and supermarkets experiencing growth.” <br><br> The GDP numbers effectively draw the line under 2017 and it’s now only a couple of weeks until the end of the first quarter of 2018. Today, we’ll get the performance of manufacturing numbers for February and next week there’s an RBNZ meeting. The New Zealand Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7275 and AUD/NZD1.0720.

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

After taking bottom spot on our one-day currency performance table on Wednesday, the EUR fell further on Thursday against the GBP and USD but rose against the three ‘Commonwealth Currencies’; the Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Dollars. At the end of the Asian session yesterday, EUR/USD stood around 1.2380 but by the New York afternoon it was struggling to hold on to a 1.23 ‘big figure’. <br><br> France’s central bank revised up its 2018 growth forecast from 1.7% to 1.9% after data showed the economy grew 2.0% in 2017; its fastest growth in six years. Its updated economic outlook said that confidence indicators have held up better so far this year than it expected, joining the IMF, OECD and European Commission in raising their forecasts since the start of the year. Next year, the central bank sees growth easing to 1.7%, down from 1.8% previously, as exports are expected to offer less of a tailwind next year due to a lagged impact from the euro’s strength. It left its 2020 growth forecast unchanged at 1.6%. The economy is forecast to create 185,000-200,000 net new jobs annually through the end of the decade, cutting the unemployment rate to 7.9 percent by the end of 2020. That would be the lowest jobless rate since the end of 2008 and would also put President Emmanuel Macron within reach of a promise to cut it to 7 percent by the end of his term in 2022. <br><br> Of course, what still matters most for ECB monetary policy is the outlook for prices. The Banque de France forecasts that inflation will average 1.6% this year, then ease to 1.4% in 2019 before picking back up to 1.8% in 2020. The euro opens in Asia today at USD1.2305, AUD/EUR0.6335 and NZD/EUR0.5905.

AUD / USD

Expected Range

It’s been a rare event recently but the US Dollar finished the day on Thursday at the top of our one-day currency performance table. Its index against a basket of major currencies rose more than four-tenths of a point from the Asian low just below 89.20 to a best level at the end of the London afternoon around 89.62; the highest in just over 48 hours. <br><br> As Bloomberg reports the Larry Kodlow story, “Within minutes of being named as top White House economic adviser, Kudlow was on the airwaves to push a tough stance toward China and promise a new phase of tax cuts - hitting two of Trump’s favorite talking points and making clear why he was chosen for the job. The economist and CNBC contributor also demonstrated a Trump-like willingness to ignore taboos. In a rare departure for someone about to take a senior government job, he questioned Federal Reserve monetary policy and even offered a trading recommendation ‘I would buy King Dollar and I would sell gold.’” Early in the day on Thursday, President Trump tweeted, “Larry Kudlow will be my Chief Economic Advisor as Director of the National Economic Council. Our Country will have many years of Great Economic & Financial Success, with low taxes, unparalleled innovation, fair trade and an ever-expanding labor force leading the way! #MAGA” <br><br> As for Mr. Kudlow, he told CNBC that, “I must say as somebody who doesn’t like tariffs, I think China has earned a tough response not only from the United States... A thought that I have is the United States could lead a coalition of large trading partners and allies against China, or to let China know that they’re breaking the rules left and right. That’s the way I’d like to see. You call it a sort of a trade coalition of the willing.” A reference to George Bush’s 2003 Iraq War coalition is hardly the sort of talk designed to calm international tensions and the USD index opens in Asia around 89.60.

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar fell sharply on Thursday, with the whole of its decline coming during the North American time zone after a hardening of the US stance on trade and some very weak local housing market data. USD/CAD had traded pretty much sideways for 36 hours after its initial jump on the Poloz speech on Tuesday and by midday London time yesterday still stood at 1.2960. Within just a few hours it was a full cent higher, having moved on to a 1.30 ‘big figure’ for the first time since July 4th last year. Though GBP/CAD made fresh 20-month highs, neither AUD/CAD nor NZD/CAD could break their respective highs hit on Tuesday this week. <br><br> Thursday brought existing home sales data in Canada. Recall these fell 14.5% in January from December to the lowest monthly level in three years as tighter mortgage rules hit demand. New and tougher rules on mortgage lending were imposed at the start of January amid fears of a housing bubble, requiring lenders to “stress test” borrowers to ensure they could withstand higher interest rates. The changes meant fewer buyers qualify for loans. Far from rebounding in February, home sales fell another 6.5% during the month and were down 16.9% in year-on-year terms. Sales were down from the previous month in almost three-quarters of all local housing markets, with large monthly declines in and around Greater Vancouver and Greater Toronto. Despite an 8.1% monthly increase in February, new listings nationally were still lower than monthly levels recorded in every month last year except January, and came in 6.4% below the 10-year monthly average and 14.6% below the peak reached in December 2017. <br><br> After the twin hits from the Poloz speech and these very weak housing market numbers, Friday brings the manufacturing sales data. The Canadian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD/CAD1.3055, AUD/CAD1.0180 and NZD/CAD0.9490.

By Nick Parsons

AUD had a good day Wednesday even as US stocks and risk appetite fell. EUR was the day’s main loser on ECB comments


GBP / AUD

Expected Range

We wondered yesterday morning whether the British Pound could hold onto the gains made on the back of the Chancellor’s Spring Statement. As we noted here, “Rarely has such poor news been so well received; both by backbench MP’s and a usually more skeptical foreign exchange market”. On Wednesday it seems the market had second thoughts and it was only the weakness of the EUR which prevented the GBP from taking bottom spot on our one-day performance table. It’s trading range against the USD was only a little over half a cent from high to low but the pound lost between one and three-tenths against most of the major currencies we follow closely here. <br><br> With no official economic data released on Wednesday, the day in London was dominated by a furious row between the UK and Russia which ended with the expulsion of 23 Russian diplomats. This is likely to completely overshadow preparations for next week’s EU Summit and is already showing a fractured response by UK allies in Europe. In contrast to German chancellor Angela Merkel and US president Donald Trump who assured British Prime Minister Theresa May they were taking her government’s views on possible Russian involvement in an alleged assassination attempt extremely seriously, President Emmanuel Macron and other French officials have declined to mention Russia directly. <br><br> There is a more serious split potentially between the two major parties in the UK, with the opposition Labour Party being much more hesitant and circumspect in criticising Russia than the ruling Conservative-led Coalition Government. How all this plays out is impossible to predict, but it serves to show how even in an age of careful news-management, unforeseen events can introduce a huge degree of political and economic uncertainty into financial markets. The GBP opens in Asia this morning at USD1.3960, GBP/AUD1.7730 and GBP/NZD1.9055.

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

After an Asian session in which it reached a high of USD1.2410, the EUR came under steady pressure in the Northern Hemisphere on Wednesday, falling to a low in the European afternoon of 1.2350 and taking bottom spot on our one-day currency performance table. AUD/EUR ended the day around 30 pips higher with NZD/EUR up about half that amount. <br><br> Speaking to the annual “ECB Watchers” conference in Frankfurt, its President Mario Draghi said the European Central Bank will avoid surprising investors with sudden changes to its stimulus plans, stressing that inflation is still too low and US trade policies and a stronger euro are concerns. “Adjustments to our policy will remain predictable, and they will proceed at a measured pace… We still need to see further evidence that inflation dynamics are moving in the right direction. So monetary policy will remain patient, persistent and prudent.” Speaking about US trade tariffs, he said that while the initial impact is likely to be small, “there are potential second-round effects that could have much more serious consequences. These include the risk of retaliation across other goods and an escalation of trade tensions, and the potential for negative confidence effects which would weigh on business investment in particular.” <br><br> In a separate interview in Dublin, Governing Council member Philip Lane who heads Ireland’s Central Bank said the European Central Bank must keep its guard up against the risk of a sudden appreciation in the euro. “There’s no concern about the current level. But if it moves a lot within a short time interval then you have to think about the implications.” Repeating this message, Mr Draghi said that “any further sharp repricing” must be watched carefully. The euro opens in Asia today at USD1.2370, AUD/EUR0.6370 and NZD/EUR0.5925.

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

As markets continued to digest Tuesday’s speech from Bank of Canada Governor Stephen Poloz, the CAD stabilised after its initial sharp losses. USD/CAD opened around 1.2955 and traded in a relatively tight 40 pip range throughout the Northern Hemisphere day, finishing towards the lower end of its trading band around the 1.2940 mark. AUD/CAD extended its gains by another 20 pips to 1.0200 whilst NZD/CAD was steady around 0.9480. <br><br> Analysts are busy revising down their Canadian Dollar forecasts. TD Securities, for example, write that, “CAD is on the cusp of a renewed down-leg. Though there was no new substantive information in Governor Poloz's speech, the market appears to have finally heeded the message that there is no urgency for the Bank to tighten anytime soon. We continue to view July as the earliest hike… We have recently noted that the market needs to curb its enthusiasm in CAD; economic growth should decelerate while Canada's largest trading partner is leaning towards more protectionist policies. NAFTA negotiations remain unresolved and still far apart on the contentious issues.” <br><br> Thursday brings existing home sales data in Canada; these fell 14.5% in January from December to the lowest monthly level in three years as tighter mortgage rules hit demand. New and tougher rules on mortgage lending were imposed at the start of January amid fears of a housing bubble, requiring lenders to “stress test” borrowers to ensure they could withstand higher interest rates. The changes mean fewer buyers qualify for loans. The Canadian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD/CAD1.2940, AUD/CAD1.0200 and NZD/CAD0.9490.

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar ended Wednesday little changed as a generally weaker EUR offset a stronger CAD on the USD index. Having opened in Asia around 89.25, it fell to a low of 89.05 before rallying up to a high just above 89.40 then closing around the mid-point of its daily trading range. <br><br> The US political circus show seems to have many rings, with plenty of action to occupy the spectators in each one. Around lunchtime in New York, it was reported by CNBC that President Donald Trump plans to name Larry Kudlow as his top economic advisor to replace Gary Cohn, who left the White House earlier this month amid disagreements about tariffs on steel and aluminum imports. Separately, it was reported by the New York Times that that Attorney General Jeff Sessions is reviewing a recommendation to fire the former FBI deputy director, Andrew G. McCabe, just days before he is scheduled to retire on Sunday. Rounding out a busy day, in a statement on the USTR website, Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer announced that the United States has requested dispute settlement consultations with the Government of India at the World Trade Organization (WTO) challenging Indian export subsidy programs. <br><br> In economic news, US retail sales fell for a third straight month in February as households cut back on purchases of motor vehicles and other big-ticket items. The Commerce Department said retail sales fell 0.1% last month against consensus expectations of a +0.3% monthly rise. It was the first time since April 2012 that retail sales have declined for three straight months. After the numbers were published, the Atlanta Fed yet again slashed its Q1 GDP forecast; this time from 2.5% to just 1.9%. As recently as end-January, the model was signaling a 5.4% pace of growth in Q1. Still to come this week we have housing and industrial production data. The USD index opens in Asia around 89.25.

AUD

Expected Range

Yet again, the high of the US equity market on Wednesday coincided almost exactly (in fact within 10 minutes) of the high of the AUD/USD exchange rate. The Aussie Dollar rose steadily through the whole of the Asia day and the European morning to reach a best level at 12.20pm of 0.7910; the first time it had been back on a 79 cents ‘big figure’ since February 20th. From its level at that point of 25,110, the Dow Jones Industrial Average then fell almost 430 points over the next 4 hours, dragging AUD/USD down to a low of 0.7870. Overall, however, the Aussie has been pretty resilient. The US stock market is lower than it was before Friday’s labour market numbers but AUD/USD is almost exactly one cent higher. <br><br> RBA Assistant Governor (Financial Markets) Christopher Kent yesterday gave a speech on developments in the Australian corporate bond market. He noted that, “accommodative monetary policies have encouraged greater risk-taking by both lenders and borrowers. This is one of the important ways in which the monetary transmission mechanism works. It has supported the decline in spreads and other positive developments I've just discussed. At the same time, however, the combination of low interest rates and low volatility in financial markets is of concern to the extent that it can lead to excessive risk-taking via a search for yield. This is something that the Reserve Bank has been noting for a time.” He wasn’t ringing any bells at all, but if credit spreads do widen or volatility picks up again, then the RBA has shown that it is on the case. <br><br> As for incoming economic data, Westpac’s Index of Consumer Sentiment rose 0.2% to 103.0 in March from 102.7 in February. Their analysts noted, “Sentiment continues to hold in slightly optimistic territory with March marking the fourth consecutive monthly reading above the 100 level. That followed a year in which pessimism dominated. However, the index is still well below levels typically associated with a robust consumer.” The Australian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7875, with AUD/NZD at 1.0745 and GBP/AUD1.7725.

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar underperformed its Aussie cousin on Wednesday. The peak of NZD/USD actually came during the Asian session around 0.7350 and at the time of the peak in AUD/USD, it had fallen short of this level by around 10 pips. It’s subsequent decline extended only another 20 pips, however and the Kiwi has now remained on a 73 cents ‘big figure’ ever since late Tuesday morning in the Sydney time zone. <br><br> After the Governor of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand’s speech on macroprudential policy, there was always going to be plenty of interest in the REINZ survey of house prices released less than 24 hours later. The median house price for New Zealand rose 6.9% in February to $530,000 up from $496,000 in February 2017 according to the latest data from the Real Estate Institute of New Zealand. The median house price for New Zealand excluding Auckland rose even higher, seeing an 8.4% increase to $450,000 from the same time last year. Prices in Auckland increased at a more moderate 3.7% to $858,000 from the same time last year (up from $827,000) and were up 4.6% month-on-month. REINZ said, ““Median house prices increased in 14 out of 16 regions across New Zealand during February 2018 compared to February 2017, including a record high in the Hawke’s Bay. The only regions not to experience an increase were the West Coast and Gisborne which saw decreases of 10.7% and 3.1% respectively.” <br><br> With a very solid start to 2018 for the housing market, the statisticians still have to release one more missing piece of the 2017 economic jigsaw. This comes today with the Q4 GDP numbers. ANZ, BNZ and Westpac all pick +0.7% q/q and 3.1% y/y whilst ASB Bank go for +0.8% and 3.2%. The New Zealand Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7325 and AUD/NZD1.07245.

By Nick Parsons

AUD/USD moving closely with stock markets but quite resilient


AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro was very much out of the spotlight for most of Tuesday though a late rally as the US Dollar struggled took EUR/USD back on to a 1.24 handle for the first time since last Thursday’s ECB Council meeting. For the 12 hours of trading in Asia and the European morning, just 25 pips separated the high and low for EUR/USD and it settled around the mid-point of its range, lacking both direction and momentum until the announcement of the sacking of the US Secretary of State. By the close in New York, however, the EUR was challenging the GBP for second place on our one-day performance table. <br><br> The leader of Italy’s far-right League, which emerged the largest conservative party in national elections on March 4, said on Tuesday that he did not see the country suddenly leaving the euro. “The euro is and remains a flawed currency,” League leader Matteo Salvini told reporters in Strasbourg, repeating his common line but, “There is no unilateral and improvised exit on the horizon,” he added. Salvini campaigned on rewriting European Union budget rules in order to make drastic tax cuts, and on mass deportations of irregular migrants but has not yet been invited by Italian President, Sergio Mattarella, to try to form the next Government. <br><br> The main events economic in the Eurozone come today with the final German CPI numbers ahead of those for the wider Eurozone on Friday. There are plenty of Central Bank speakers on Wednesday too, with President Draghi, Vice President Constancio and Chief Economist Peter Praet all scheduled to talk. The euro opens in Asia today at USD1.2390, AUD/EUR0.6340 and NZD/EUR0.5915.

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

Volatility has resumed in the New Zealand Dollar which once again topped the table at the end of the global trading day on Tuesday. NZD/USD is back on a 73 cents handle and the high in the European afternoon around 0.7350 was the best level in almost three weeks. AUD/NZD is down more than half a cent to 1.0720 whilst NZD/CAD is up more than a full point from Monday’s close at 0.9500. <br><br> The Reserve Bank of New Zealand’s (RBNZ) outgoing governor said on Tuesday that the bank’s use of macroprudential tools had successfully insulated the financial sector from the risks of a hot housing market and that its policy toolkit should be expanded. Governor Grant Spencer said that a planned review of the bank’s use of macroprudential policy in 2018, five years after it was first adopted, should consider the ways in which the success of the tools could be built on. “While we stated at the outset in 2013 that LVRs (loan to value restrictions) would be temporary, I believe there is a case to consider maintaining a policy infrastructure of this sort, with policies being adjusted through time between binding and non-binding settings.” Mr. Spencer also recommended the introduction of a new committee to make decisions around macroprudential policy, which would sit alongside the bank’s monetary policy committee, with some overlap in members. <br><br> The RBNZ slightly eased back some of its LVR restrictions in January after a sharp slow-down in house price inflation towards the end of 2017. House prices have since recovered, growing at an annual rate of around 6.5 percent for the past three months. The timing of Mr. Spencer’s speech is very interesting, coming on the day before the always-fascinating REINZ house price report is released and should keep the topic very much a live one for debate. The New Zealand Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7325 and AUD/NZD1.0720.

AUD

Expected Range

On a day of high political drama in the United States, the opening of the cash equity market in the United States on Tuesday coincided with the peak in the AUD/USD exchange rate just under 0.7895. The DJIA had rallied almost 650 points from last Thursday’s intra-day low; at which point AUD/USD stood around 0.7775. As the stock market yesterday suffered a 250 point drop in the space of just a few hours on news that Secretary of State Rex Tillerson had been fired, so the AUD/USD slipped back; albeit demonstrating some resilience given the scale of the stock market reversal. <br><br> The highlight in Australian economic news was the well-respected NAB monthly business survey. The business conditions index moved 3 points higher to +21. This is a record high since the monthly survey commenced in March 1997, although the same measure in NAB’s quarterly survey reached this level in 1994. In contrast, the business confidence index declined by 2 points to +9. According to NAB, “The fall in confidence may reflect the turbulence seen in international financial markets in early February, but confidence remains above average suggesting that the impact was relatively limited”. The strength in business conditions was broad-based with all major industry groups reporting above-average conditions. NAB noted, “The gap between the best and the softest performing industries is at a relatively low level with even the underperforming retail sector recording its highest reading in eight months. That said, the trend down in personal & recreational services over the past four months needs to be watched closely as it could indicate that softness in consumer spending is broadening beyond retail.” <br><br> It is striking that even a record high for NAB’s business conditions sees the bank hedging its bets on the interest rate outlook. It recently removed one of the two hikes in its 2018 forecast profile and now says, “We expect by late 2018 the RBA will feel relaxed enough about the domestic fundamentals to cautiously start withdrawing the stimulatory policy stance it is currently running. However, it will depend heavily on the data flow and the risk is that the RBA will delay rate rises until early 2019.” The Australian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7855, with AUD/NZD at 1.0720 and GBP/AUD1.7775.

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The GBP could quite make two consecutive days at the top of our performance table but the Canadian Dollar has made back-to-back appearances at the bottom. USD edged gradually higher in Asia and the European morning then jumped from 1.2840 to 1.2925 as headlines from Bank of Canada Governor Stephen Poloz’s speech began to hit the newswires. By the end of the day, AUD/CAD was nudging 1.02 and NZD/CAD was almost at 95 cents. <br><br> In a speech which focused on labour market slack, the Governor said Canada is at the “sweet spot” of the business cycle where growing demand is actually generating new capacity as companies invest to meet sales, a process he said the Bank of Canada has an “obligation” to nurture. The increased investment, meanwhile, will help bring more people into the work force - such as women, youth and the long-term unemployed. “Put it all together, and it is not much of a stretch to imagine that Canada’s labour force could expand by another half a million workers. To put this thought experiment into perspective, this could increase Canada’s potential output by as much as 1.5 per cent, or about $30 billion per year. That’s equal to a permanent increase in output of almost $1,000 per Canadian every year, even before you factor in the possible investment and productivity gains that would come with such an increase in labour supply. Clearly, that is a prize worth pursuing.” <br><br> On monetary policy, Poloz said, “It should be clear that there are likely to be significant economic benefits associated with allowing the economy to find its way to a higher, more productive economic equilibrium, if this can happen within our inflation-targeting regime… “We cannot know in advance how far the capacity-building process can go, but we have an obligation to allow it to occur.” This doesn’t sound like a man in any hurry to raise interest rates, hence the slump in the Canadian Dollar which opens in Asia this morning at USD/CAD1.2970, AUD/CAD1.0190 and NZD/CAD0.9495.

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar fell even as stocks turned sharply lower on Tuesday, on news that President Trump had fired his Secretary of State, Rex Tillerson. The Dollar’s index against a basket of major currencies had risen a couple of tenths in Asia to 89.65 and held that level until lunchtime in Europe. By noon in New York, however, it had fallen almost half a point to a 6-day low of 89.65 and the DJIA had tumbled 250 points from earlier levels. <br><br> It wasn’t just the fact of Mr Tillerson’s departure, but the way it had been announced with the Secretary of State on learning of his fate from the POTUS Twitter feed. President Trump subsequently told reporters that he and Tillerson disagreed on Iran, that he made the North Korea decision himself and thinks Tillerson will be "much happier now." Trump said "I wish Rex Tillerson well… I very much appreciate his commitment and his service and I wish him well. He’s a good man… We got along actually quite well but we disagreed on things.” The Trump White House has seen 24 departures in its first 417 days - a rate of around one senior position every 17 days (and more first-year departures than any other president in at least 40 years). A chief of staff, press secretary, three communications directors, a chief strategist, a health secretary, and now a Secretary of State and Personal Assistant are among those who have left the Trump administration. <br><br> Amidst all the political dramas, the economic numbers seem like something of an after-thought. The Labor Department said its Consumer Price Index rose 0.2% last month after jumping 0.5% in January, taking the annual rate to 2.2%, up from 2.1% as the weak reading from last year dropped from the calculation. Excluding the volatile food and energy components, the CPI rose 0.2% after increasing 0.3% last month to leave the annual rate unchanged at 1.8%. After the inflation numbers, on Wednesday we have retail sales and then towards the end of the week it’s housing and industrial production data. The USD index opens in Asia around 89.30.

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound couldn’t quite make two consecutive days at the top of the table, knocked into second place on Tuesday by the ever-volatile New Zealand Dollar. GBP/USD actually spent most of the Asian session and European morning in a fairly tight range, unchanged from the previous New York close at 1.3900 at the moment UK Chancellor Phillip Hammond stood up to present the inaugural Spring Statement to the House of Commons. By the time he had finished, ‘cable’ stood at 1.3965 and went on to a day’s best of 1.3985. <br><br> We wrote here yesterday that, “There is the chance of a rare upgrade to UK economic forecasts after the incoming data over the past few months have shown the Office for Budget Responsibility was too pessimistic in its assumptions on UK productivity.” That is exactly what happened, albeit the upward revisions were only very small and from an exceptionally weak starting point. What really grabbed the attention was how upbeat the Chancellor was; as if he had been practicing really hard for quite some time. Often accused of being an Eeyore (the pessimistic, gloomy, depressed, old grey donkey who is the friend of Winnie-the-Pooh in the children’s books by A.A. Milne), Mr. Hammond began by insisting, “I am at my positively Tigger-like best” (As this character says, bouncing is what Tigger does best). He proceeded to read a series of five-year economic growth forecasts which should reduce any adult to tears of sadness, not joy: 1.5%, 1.3%, 1.3%, 1.4% and 1.5%. This will be the first time in 70 years of five consecutive years of growth below 2%, but the Chancellor made it sound like the winning lottery numbers; hailing a 0.1% upward revision to the 2018 number. <br><br> The Chancellor promised Britain that, “our best days lie ahead of us” and said he would use the budget this autumn to set out his expenditure expectations for 2020 and beyond, with a full spending review next year, after Brexit. If the public finances continued to reflect the improvements outlined in his Statement, he said the government would “have capacity to enable further increases in public spending and investment in the years ahead.” Rarely has such poor news been so well received; both by backbench MP’s and a usually more skeptical foreign exchange market. The GBP opens in Asia this morning at USD1.3965, GBP/AUD1.7775 and GBP/NZD1.9060.

By Nick Parsons

AUD just beaten into top spot on Monday by GBP. NAB business survey is Tuesday highlight


AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar fell modestly on Monday; a day which brought no fresh incoming economic news and little further developments in the trade tariff saga. Its index against a basket of major currencies had ended last week around 89.70 and by close of business in New York it had slipped just a couple of tenths to 89.50. The USD was down against the GBP and EUR, as well as the Antipodeans, but finished up against the CAD. In stock markets, meantime, the DJIA managed to turn a 150-point gain into a 100-point loss by late afternoon in New York. <br><br> Even after Friday’s employment report, Chicago Federal Reserve Bank President Charles Evans said he wanted the US central bank to keep interest-rate increases on hold until after March to allow inflation a chance to rise and even exceed the Fed’s 2-percent target. “My own preference would be to wait a little bit longer,” Evans said in a CNBC interview. “We could go midyear and all of a sudden see, ‘wow, inflation continues to move up towards 2 percent, I’m much more confident’ and we continue an upward gradual adjustment of the funds rate.” Evans told both CNBC and Bloomberg that the February jobs report was good news in that it showed more people entering the labor force, with the participation rate rising to a five-month high of 63 percent. But, with strong hiring and an unemployment rate of 4.1 percent, he had hoped that wage growth would be stronger. He also said he would rather wait at least until inflation data for March had been released before raising rates. <br><br> For today, the main economic focus will be the CPI data. The headline inflation rate is expected to tick up to 2.2% y/y from 2.1% although the core rate excluding food & energy costs is expected to remain unchanged at 1.8%. Bear in mind that unlike the RBA, RBNZ or BoE, the Federal Reserve doesn’t have a CPI target. Instead, it looks at the core PCE deflator which is still some way below its preferred 2.0% level. After the inflation numbers, on Wednesday we have retail sales and then towards the end of the week it’s housing and industrial production data. The USD index opens in Asia around 89.50.

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The British Pound finished on Monday as the top performer of the day, just edging the Australian Dollar into second place on our one-day table. GBP/USD had traded sideways in a very narrow range during the Asian session and was initially knocked lower by a pretty downbeat set of UK credit card numbers from Visa which warned that the first quarter of 2018 was on track to be the “worst on record” and that spending by consumers had fallen in nine out the past 10 months. From a low just above USD 1.3840, however, the GBP was then boosted by talk of an agreement on a post-Brexit transition deal and GBP/USD hit 1.39 at the end of the London afternoon. <br><br> Speaking at the Institute of Directors in London, junior Brexit minister Robin Walker said, “We recognise how important it is to secure the deal on the implementation period as soon as possible. I want to stress that we are very close to a deal at this time.” Britain has said it will adhere to EU regulations for a time-limited period after it leaves the European Union in March 2019, and hopes the details of this transition, or implementation, period, will be finalised at a summit with the EU on March 22-24. Britain has said it expects the transition period to last around two years after its departure date, although the European Union has said it should end earlier, on December 31st 2020. <br><br> Thoughts turn today to the Chancellor of the Exchequer’s Spring Statement. There is the chance of a rare upgrade to UK economic forecasts after the incoming data over the past few months have shown the Office for Budget Responsibility was too pessimistic in its assumptions on UK productivity. There are no longer any changes to taxes announced in March as the UK tax year begins on April 6th and the Chancellor has said he prefers to make these announcements in the Autumn to give time for consultation on detailed implementation. The OBR’s numbers, then, will likely take centre-stage in this new set-piece event. The GBP opens in Asia this morning at USD1.3900, GBP/AUD1.7655 and GBP/NZD1.9060.

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The New Zealand Dollar followed its Aussie cousin higher in Monday’s Asian session, reaching a best level just over USD0.7320 but was unable to hold on to its early gains. By the London afternoon it had slipped back on to a US 72 cents ‘big figure’ and finished the day pretty much unchanged from Friday’s closing levels. <br><br> As well as the ‘risk-on’ mood for currencies which have often been positively correlated with rising asset markets, the news on trade was generally viewed in a favourable light. A spokesman for Trade and Export Growth Minister David Parker said that New Zealand has formally sought an exemption from the tariffs announced by President Trump, and while the details are still to be clarified, New Zealand may fall within the flexibility offered to close security partners. In an emailed statement to the Press, he said, "I am also concerned about the secondary impacts of these tariffs in terms of the knock-on effects on prices of steel and aluminium products around the world, including in New Zealand… A tit-for-tat escalation benefits no-one and hurts everyone." <br><br> Though the main economic news this week will be the Q4 GDP estimate on Thursday, it is far from the only set of figures to be released. On Wednesday we’ll get the always-fascinating REINZ house price report and before then this morning come the monthly food price numbers where consensus looks for a +0.3% monthly increase. The RBNZ has also announced that Governor Grant Spencer will deliver a speech titled "Getting the best out of macro-prudential policy". The speech text and a news release will be published at 12.45pm local time Tuesday afternoon. The New Zealand Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7295 and AUD/NZD1.0790.

AUD

Expected Range

The global ‘risk-on’ mood definitely helped the Australian Dollar in the Asian session on Monday and AUD/USD marginally extended last week’s rally to reach a best level just under 0.7880. After an early mark-up, however, stocks found little fresh buying interest and as US index futures began to give back their gains, so too the AUD slipped back a little. Overall, the trading ranges were not wide and it would be unwise to read too much into the price action but it does seem that the near-term fortunes of the Aussie Dollar are closely aligned to those of the equity market. <br><br> Westpac’s analysts have arguably been the most accurate forecasters of the Australian economy recently. They were the first of the ’Big Four’ banks to call for RBA rates to be unchanged until the end of 2019 and though others are becoming less aggressive (and therefore less confident) in their rate hike calls, it does seem like a process of catch-up to the thought leader. Their latest research note reiterates, “a number of key themes that we believe will dominate economic and market developments. Our advice to customers throughout 2017 has been to expect Australia’s growth rate to likely be anchored below trend in both 2018 (2.7%) and slowing to 2.5% in 2019. That has contrasted with official forecasts (Reserve Bank and Treasury) which anticipate growth picking up to 3.25% in both 2018 and 2019. We have recognised a solid ongoing boost to growth from non– residential construction; government investment (especially at the state level) and exports. However, we are much more cautious than official forecasts on the consumer; residential construction and equipment investment.” <br><br> On a day when the NAB will grab most of the headlines with their very well-respected monthly business survey, Westpac note that back in August 2017, they had been forecasting that AUD cash rates would fall below the US Federal Funds Rate by around 40 basis points by end 2018. That, in turn, would drive the 10-year bond spread to zero, from around 60 basis points. At that time markets were priced for the US rate to be around 35 basis points below Australia. They now expect RBA rates to be even lower than Federal Funds at minus 63 basis points by end 2018 and minus 112 basis points by mid-2019. The likely result, their view, is that AUD 10-year bonds will trade around 30 basis points below US bond rates by mid-2019; something which they see will push AUD/USD to 74 cents by end-2018. The Australian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD0.7870, with AUD/NZD at 1.0790 and GBP/AUD1.7655.

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

After the sharp rally seen on Thursday and Friday, the Canadian Dollar was back at the bottom of the table on Monday, though we’d repeat our warning not to read too much into currency movements on what was actually a fairly quiet day in the Northern Hemisphere. USD/CAD hit a low of 1.2805 in Asia yesterday and only moved around a quarter of a cent higher over the next 12-15 hours, having hit a high just under 1.2840. <br><br> Finance Minister Bill Morneau said during a visit to London on Monday that there are parallels between the way companies in North America and Britain are holding back on investment as they respectively wait for clarity on the re-negotiation of NAFTA and the outcome of talks on a Brexit deal. “There are some businesses that are being cautious in investments because there is an expectation that NAFTA could be slightly different tomorrow than it was yesterday… What’s been clear from the American standpoint is they are anxious to have a conclusion to Nafta as near term as possible - we’re trying to work constructively towards that goal.” On Canada’s future trading partnership with the UK -which is currently under the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement - Morneau said any post-Brexit arrangement would have at least as much trade as the two countries enjoy currently. “To the extent that we can get a better arrangement with the U.K. in the future, that’s positive.” <br><br> BoC Governor Stephen Poloz is due to make a speech on Tuesday which will be closely analysed for further clues on monetary policy. Deputy Governor Tim Lane last week said, “We’ve been balancing the risk of undermining the economic expansion by moving too quickly with the risk of delaying too long and needing to raise rates sharply later to rein in inflation.” The market isn’t fully pricing in the next rate increase - which would be the fourth in the cycle - until July, according to calculations on overnight index swaps. The market expects two to three more hikes during the course of this year. The Canadian Dollar opens in Asia this morning at USD/CAD1.2830, AUD/CAD1.0105 and GBP/CAD1.7840.

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

EUR/USD spent most – but not all – of Monday on a 1.23 ‘big figure’ with its best level just under 1.2340 coming early in the European morning. Having dipped to a low just above 1.2290 by lunchtime, the EUR then clawed its way back on to 1.23 to finish mid-table on our one-day performance chart in what was in truth a pretty lacklustre session for most of the major currencies. <br><br> US President Trump tweeted on Monday that, “Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross will be speaking with representatives of the European Union about eliminating the large Tariffs and Barriers they use against the U.S.A. Not fair to our farmers and manufacturers.” According to Bloomberg, a meeting in Brussels between EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom and her U.S. counterpart Robert Lighthizer on Saturday ended without a breakthrough, as the EU didn’t receive assurances that it will be exempted from the metal tariffs. “If anyone starts throwing stones, it’s better first to make sure he’s not living in a glass house,” European Commission spokesman Enrico Brivio said. Asked to respond to Trump’s accusations that the EU is imposing barriers to U.S. automakers, Malmstrom said that “it’s hard to argue on Twitter over these issues, but the European Union is a very open market.” <br><br> Tuesday looks a pretty quiet day in terms of scheduled economic data in the Eurozone, as does much of the rest of the week. The highlight will be the final German CPI numbers on Wednesday and those for the wider Eurozone on Friday. There are plenty of Central Bank speakers, too, with President Draghi, Vice President Constancio and Chief Economist Peter Praet all on Wednesday. Often, the week after an ECB Council meeting is one where monetary officials try to recalibrate any unwelcome market movements or policy expectations but this time around there’s no need at all for that. The EUR opens in North America today at USD1.2315 and EUR/CAD1.5790. The euro opens in Asia today at USD1.2335, AUD/EUR0.6380 and NZD/EUR0.5915.

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