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By Nick Parsons

USD reverses early losses, NZD surges as recent range breaks


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

Australia last held a referendum on whether it should become a Republic back in 1999, when it was rejected by a margin of 55:45. Opposition Labour Leader Bill Shorten has vowed that if his party wins the next election, "We will put a simple Yes or No question to the Australian people - do you support an Australian republic with an Australian head of state?" This isn’t the place to discuss the relative merits of the arguments for and against, but with another UK Royal Wedding announced yesterday and the birth next year of a baby who will be fifth in line to the throne, it may once again become a talking point.<br> <br> Certainly, there’s not much else that’s fresh on the domestic news agenda: it has been a pretty quiet 24 hours, albeit the Aussie Dollar has managed to hold on to a US 76 cents big figure for almost the entire period. The low of 0.7599 came just as England were finally thrashed in the first Ashes test and the AUD subsequently managed to climb around half a cent to the day’s best level of 0.7643 late in the London morning. It slipped 35 pips in the New York session but overall it wasn’t a bad start to the week for the AUD: up against the GBP and CAD, down against the NZD but steady against the EUR and USD.<br> <br> There are no domestic economic data until Thursday when we get a look at Private Capital Expenditure which will then be plugged into analysts’ GDP spreadsheets. The same day we’ll also see Building Approvals and RBA Credit numbers. Meantime, it’s radio silence as far as RBA speakers are concerned: the next Board meeting is December 5th so there’ll be no clues about monetary policy from Central Bank officials.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

Like all the major currencies, the pound had a quiet day in the Asian time zone Monday but from 6.30am to lunchtime in London time it jumped 60 pips from USD1.3315 to a best level just over 1.3375 before then giving back most of these gains in the afternoon. GBP/AUD hit a high of 1.7545 before giving back 20 pips whilst GBP/NZD finished the day a full cent lower at 1.9292.<br> <br> After a weekend taken up by yet more twists and turns in the interminable Brexit negotiations and then a thrashing in the first Ashes test, it was a relief for the Brits to find something different to talk about: another Royal Wedding. It is only a couple of months since Prince Harry made his first public appearance with his girlfriend, Meghan Markle, at the Invictus Games in Toronto. A statement issued by Clarence House Monday morning said, “His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales is delighted to announce the engagement of Prince Harry to Ms. Megan Markle.” The wedding is to be held next year, with the ceremony conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury.<br> <br> With Prince William’s wife Kate due to give birth late Spring, the UK’s royal fans will have both a new baby and a marriage to celebrate. Whether the country’s banks will be celebrating or commiserating will probably depend on the results of the Stress Tests published at 7am local time on Tuesday morning as part of the Bank of England’s Financial Stability Report. There has been some chatter than one of the banks may fail the tests and we’ll soon find out if this was a genuine leak or a carefully crafted piece of expectations management…

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

Monday’s trading pattern for the Canadian Dollar was the same as most other FX majors: it strengthened through Asia and Europe then reversed these gains during New York hours. USD/CAD fell from 1.2710 to a low of 1.2682 before jumping almost a full cent to a high of 1.2766. As well as the obvious influence of USD trading more generally, the CAD was also hit by a quite sizeable drop in oil prices. Though a concerted effort to talk crude prices higher ahead of Wednesday’s OPEC meeting in Vienna, little of note was heard from the major players. NYMEX Crude reached a fresh 2017 high of $58.82 on Friday but fell steadily on Monday to be around 65 cents overnight to $58.15.<br> <br> All this volatility comes ahead of a very busy Canadian economic calendar: the Bank of Canada’s Financial System Review is on Tuesday and the labour market report and Q3 GDP figures are released on Friday. Economists are estimating annualized GDP growth of 1.8% in Q3, down from 4.5% in the second quarter. Canada is unusual – indeed it is a world leader – in producing monthly GDP numbers. July was flat m/m whilst in August GDP edged down by 0.1% the first m/m drop since October 2016. The September numbers will be published alongside the full quarterly estimate.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

Price action for the EUR on Monday was the simple mirror image of the USD: quiet through Asia, up through the European lunchtime then reversing lower during the New York Day. EUR/USD began around 1.1930, reached a high of 1.1958 immediately before the US new home sales numbers then promptly lost 60 pips to dip back onto a 1.18 handle. It was not a dissimilar pattern against both the Aussie and Kiwi Dollars though NZD/EUR did outperform AUD/EUR amidst the bout of short-covering we described above.<br> <br> There were no fresh Eurozone data or Central Bank speakers on Monday, so it was back to watching the unfolding Coalition talks in Germany. By common consensus, the immediate loser in these talks is SPD leader Martin Shulz, though his party may still be able to extract significant concessions as the price for its ongoing support of the CDU/CSU. It may gain control of the Finance Ministry or it may force Merkel’s CSU partner to abandon the proposed 200,000 annual cap on asylum seekers. For her part, Angela Merkel said only that global challenges such as relations with Russia and the US needed a Germany “able to act… President Macron’s plans for EU reform had led to an “expectation that we draw conclusions and position ourselves”.<br> <br> In words which were widely interpreted as a call for a Grand Coalition, she said, “given the conflicts we have in the Middle East, given the situation in Russia, the situation in the United States of America, I think it is good if Germany is able to act. That is why we believe that such a stable government should be formed, in terms of Europe, in terms of our economic strength, in view of the new challenges we face”. We’ll now have to see if this helps put a floor under the EUR after Monday’s reversal.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

It’s been a rare sight recently to see the New Zealand Dollar at the top of the one-day performance charts but this is exactly what happened Monday. Initially, the Kiwi tracked the Aussie almost tick-for-tick and from the Sydney open to lunchtime in London, the AUD/NZD cross didn’t move outside a very tight 1.1064-1.1085 range. When it did break, it did so to the downside and quite dramatically. By the time London traders handed the books over to New York, the pair had fallen all the way down to 1.1005; its lowest level in almost 6 weeks.<br> <br> The big surprise is that this move took place in a total news vacuum. There was simply nothing. No economic data, no political announcement and no big-hitting analyst research report. We haven’t yet had the weekly CFTC Commitment of Traders report on speculative positioning in currency markets as it has been delayed due to the Thanksgiving holiday last Thursday.<br> <br> We do know from the last one released November 17th that the market’s net short of NZD was the largest since the week of May 19th; having turned around 180 degrees from the big net long state of late July. As AUD/NZD fell out of the last week’s trading range, a likely big volume of stop-loss/stop-entry orders were triggered which then fed through into NZD strength against all the other currencies as any available Kiwi liquidity was sucked up. NZD/USD is on a 69 cent handle whilst GBP/NZD is down over 2 cents from last week’s 1.9500 high. A very busy and totally unexpected day – the joys of foreign exchange!

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar had a day of two unequal halves on Monday, falling for the first 15 hours since the Sydney open then rallying through the New York day to regain all and more of its earlier losses. The USD Index against a basket of major currencies opened at 92.50, tumbled to a 2-month low of 92.21 then rallied all the way back up to 92.61. The chief trigger for the rally was the publication of US October new home sales data.<br> <br> Against expectations of a 6.1% fall in sales, the outturn was a stunning 6.2% m/m increase. The numbers aren’t quite as straightforward as they look: September’s outsized 18.9% spike was revised down to 14.2% which meant October started from a lower base. Nevertheless, the annualized pace of 687k was the highest since November 2007 and accompanying data on prices showed the average price of a new house rose above $400,000 for the first time ever to $400,200.<br> <br> Read that and weep if you’re a homebuyer in Sydney or Auckland. Ahead of the Senate Banking Committee confirmation process for incoming Fed Chair Jerome Powell, Tuesday brings more data on house prices, consumer confidence and the goods trade balance. For the US Dollar, the key will be how “Jay” – as he is known – sees strong activity numbers feeding into inflation and affecting future monetary policy decisions.

By Nick Parsons

Yellen and Powell to set tone for USD this week. AUD and NZD sidelined.


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Aussie Dollar was pretty much out of the international spotlight last week, with no major economic data releases and little in the way of fresh insight on monetary policy. AUD/USD opened last Monday in Sydney at 0.7553 and traded down to the low 0.7530’s on Tuesday morning after the release of the Minutes of the RBA’s November Board meeting. It regained a US 76 cent handle on Wednesday and finished the week around 0.7615.<br> <br> The week ahead is pretty quiet with the Australian Bureau of Statistics showcasing its expertise in social rather than economic data. Tuesday brings Marriage & Divorce numbers for 2016 whilst Wednesday is all about Ageing & Caring. The rest of G10 has already published Q3 GDP numbers but Australian doesn’t do so until December 6th. Before then, we get a look at the so-called ‘partial data’ and on Thursday this week it’s Private Capital Expenditure which will be plugged into analysts’ spreadsheets. The same day we’ll also see Building Approvals and RBA Credit numbers.<br> <br> Meantime, it’s radio silence as far as RBA speakers are concerned: the next Board meeting is December 5th so there’ll be no clues about monetary policy from Central Bank officials. With the second Ashes Test not starting until Saturday in Adelaide, the big challenge now for currency traders locally will be how to fill their days…

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The GBP began last Monday morning around USD1.3195 but this proved to be the low of the week. It strengthened pretty much without interruption to finish up almost 2½ cents against a very weak US dollar at 1.3340. The GBP gained less than half a cent against both the Aussie and New Zealand dollars but fell against a surging EUR. The weekend Press in the UK has largely agreed that Chancellor Philip Hammond may have saved his job with the Budget and that from the very narrow perspective of avoiding immediate calamity, it was less bad than many people had feared.<br> <br> For now, the focus switches firmly to Brexit negotiations. Egged on by Irish PM Leo Varadkar, the EU insists on no border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. But if it wins this, there will have to be a border between Northern Ireland and the UK, something which the Prime Minister’s DUP Coalition partners refuse to accept. It is a tricky problem to which there is no obvious solution. Notwithstanding the bluster on the UK side of the Brexit talks, there is little incentive for the EU to concede early. On an otherwise fairly sparse UK economic data calendar, the attention on Monday will be on a speech from BoE MPC ‘dove’ Dave Marsden; one of the two members who voted against a 25bp rate hike in November.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar began last week boosted by oil prices and the apparent progress in ‘NAFTA 2.0’ talks but was then undermined by weakness in both wholesale and retail sales. USD/CAD fell from 1.2780 to a low of 1.2760 before ending the week at USD1.2710 with AUD/CAD at 0.9760 and NZD/CAD at 0.8725. There are two highlights on the Canadian calendar this coming week: the Bank of Canada’s Financial System Review on Tuesday and the release of the Q3 GDP figures on Friday. Economists are estimating annualized GDP growth of 1.8% in Q3, down from 4.5% in the second quarter.<br> <br> Canada is unusual – indeed it is a world leader – in producing monthly GDP numbers. July was flat m/m whilst in August GDP edged down by 0.1% the first m/m drop since October 2016. In between these two big domestic events, on Wednesday we should see a Statement from the 173rd OPEC meeting in Vienna. The CAD’s reaction to oil prices has recently been quite straightforward, at least until softer economic data were published. If oil can extend last week’s gains – NYMEX Crude reached a fresh 2017 of $58.82 on Friday – then it should continue to offer some support for the CAD before the GDP numbers are released.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The Euro began last week after the breakdown of talks to form a new Coalition Government but as these were back on track on Friday, and incoming data showed a very buoyant Eurozone economy – the PMI’s were at 17-year highs – the EUR surged to be the strongest currency of all last week. It opened at USD1.1760, hit a low of 1.17715 on Tuesday morning but then soared on Friday to hit 1.1930; its best level since September 25th.<br> <br> Looking ahead, we’ll likely see in currency markets a repeat of the tussle between economics and politics. Thursday brings the flash estimate of Eurozone CPI in November but before then, concerns about the strength, or otherwise, of German Chancellor’s Angela Merkel’s position are likely to dominate trader sentiment.<br> <br> The immediate loser in the Coalition talks was SPD leader Martin Shulz, though his party may still be able to extract significant concessions – perhaps the Finance Ministry – as the price for its ongoing support of the CDU/CSU. “Hour zero: country without direction, unity, chancellor?” was how Der Spiegel, Germany’s leading current affairs magazine, summed up the crisis. Its rival, Stern, depicted Merkel upside down with the headline: “Free fall . . . end of the Merkel era”. It promises to be a fascinating week ahead for the Single European Currency.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

With the AUD/NZD rate trapped in a 30 pips range either side of 1.1080, NZD/USD is basically tracking the movements of its Aussie cousin. It began last week at 0.6805, hit a low on Tuesday of 0.6794 and a high on Thursday of 0.6897 before closing at 0.6880.<br> <br> The good news is that the Kiwi data calendar looks a little busier in the week ahead, but unfortunately it doesn’t really kick off until Wednesday with the publication of the RBNZ Financial Stability Report and then Acting Governor Graeme Wheeler up in front of a Parliamentary Select Committee. The main interest will likely be on the assessment of the success – or otherwise – of the so-called ‘macro prudential’ controls in the housing market and whether or not these are to be lifted any time soon.<br> <br> On Thursday the ANZ business survey will be closely watched as it’s the first look at a whole fresh month of data since the new Labour-led government was formed. It will be pored over for any sign that the recent sharp fall in the NZD is impacting confidence, activity or inflation expectations. The first two days of the week look to be as quiet in New Zealand as they are across the Tasman. It would be a big surprise to see the AUD/NZD cross move sustainably outside a 1.1050-1.1110 range.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar had a very poor week, sliding lower before the Thanksgiving holiday then tumbling further on Friday to its lowest level since September 25th. Its Index against a basket of major currencies began last week at 93.6. By Wednesday evening it was 92.9 and after plunging through the October 11th low of 92.58 on Friday, it ended the week down at just 92.45.<br> <br> Fed Chair Dr. Janet Yellen and her colleagues on the FOMC publicly revealed their doubts about whether or not the decline in inflation was indeed, transitory. “A number of participants were worried that a decline in longer-term inflation expectations would make it more challenging for the Committee to promote a return of inflation to 2 percent over the medium term. These participants’ concerns were sharpened by the apparently weak responsiveness of inflation to resource utilization and the low level of the neutral interest rate, and such considerations suggested that the removal of policy accommodation should be quite gradual.”<br> <br> This week, Dr. Yellen is testifying to the Congressional Joint Economic Committee on Wednesday, whilst the Fed’s targeted measure of inflation, PCE, is released Thursday. Interest rate markets continue to fully discount a 25bp rate hike on December 14th but this is no longer enough to support the USD. Traders will be watching the Senate Banking Committee hearing on Tuesday for clues as to what next Fed Chief Jerome Powell may be thinking on inflation and monetary policy.

By Nick Parsons

EUR jumps on stunning PMI surveys, AUD & NZD gain against GBP and USD


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

With the US out for Thanksgiving Day, the Aussie Dollar was able to capitalise on the calm by very modestly extending its gains of the previous two sessions against the US Dollar. By the end of the North American session (Canada was still open for business), AUD/USD stood at 0.7628; its best level in almost 10 days. The AUD also advanced against a somewhat weaker CAD but did best against a British Pound which is beginning to suffer – as we thought it might – from a closer look at the details of Wednesday’s UK Budget. GBP/AUD closed down at 1.7430; almost a cent and a half down from its best levels earlier this week.<br> <br> The one currency it couldn’t outperform was the EUR which, as we explain below, benefitted from some extremely strong Eurozone PMI data. As the week draws to a close, we expect events at the Gabba this Friday to be far more interesting than the foreign exchange market. It was very considerate of the Queenslanders to serve up some Spring rain to make the travelling ‘Barmy Army’ feel at home, though a betting person would probably have a few dollars on the double of England all out by tea-time and a lower GBP/AUD exchange rate by the end of the day. We’ll review both predictions in the London opening commentary!

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

We expressed here yesterday our doubts as to whether the initially positive reaction to the UK Budget would stand closer scrutiny. As we pointed out then, “never in modern history has a UK Chancellor stood up to forecast growth below 2% in every one of the next five years”. A sequence of 1.4, 1.3, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 would be a pretty dire set of marks in ice-skating or gymnastics. As a set of GDP forecasts, it is equally grim; a cumulative increase in real national income of just 7.0% in half a decade.<br> <br> Once the various UK economic think tanks had time to crunch the numbers on Wednesday night and into Thursday, there are some pretty alarming stories. The Times newspaper reports the widely-respected Institute for Fiscal Studies saying, “Britain will not return to debt levels as low as before the financial crisis until the 2060s, with workers facing two “lost decades” without earnings growth… Real earnings are falling this year as inflation has risen to 3%. The nascent recovery in earnings, which were growing through 2014 to the first half of 2016, has been choked off. That they might still be below their 2008 level in 2022 as the OBR forecast is truly astonishing”. Ouch!! GBP/USD is down 30 pips from its pre-Budget high to 1.3300, GBP/AUD is down 75 pips at 1.7450 whilst GBP/NZD is just over a full cent lower at 1.9315. We don’t imagine the Budget forecasts will look any better on Monday morning after a whole weekend’s reflection…

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

All good things come to an end and so has the Canadian Dollar’s recent strong run. South of the border, folks were celebrating Thanksgiving but north of the 49th parallel markets were very much open for business. The blame for the CAD’s fall was most definitely not oil prices. NYMEX crude added another half a cent to $58.04. instead, the culprit was a soft set of domestic economic data. Statistics Canada said retail sales rose just 0.1 percent in September, versus forecasts for a 1 percent gain, after dropping 0.1 percent in August. Receipts for the country’s retailers have been flat over the past four months, after one of the best starts to a year for the industry on record.<br> <br> This was the last major piece of output data ahead of third quarter GDP numbers next week, and is the second release this week that showed unexpected weakness in activity. Statistics Canada reported Tuesday that wholesale sales fell 1.2 percent in September. Economists are estimating annualized GDP growth of 1.8% in Q3, down from 4.5% in the Q2. Though the CAD fell on the news, it can hardly be described as a collapse: USD/CAD is up around 20 pips at 1.2715 whilst AUD/CAD is around 25 pips higher at 0.9692.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The EUR was by some margin the strongest currency of all on Thursday, not because of any great change in the German political situation – though it is rumoured that the leader of the SPD, Martin Schulz, may be about to resign – but on the back of a stunning set of ‘flash’ PMI numbers in France, Germany and the Eurozone. The Eurozone manufacturing index of 60.0 was the strongest in 211 months, the services index was at a 6-month high of 56.2 whilst the composite index was at a 79-month high of 57.5.<br> <br> Markit’s Press Release noted, “The eurozone economy is showing signs of picking up momentum in the fourth quarter, with multi-year highs seen for all main indicators of output, demand, employment and inflation in November. Business activity and prices rose at the steepest rates for over six years, while the largest accumulation of uncompleted work for over a decade encouraged firms to take on staff at a rate not seen for 17 years…. Inflows of new orders showed the largest gain since February 2011. The biggest increase in factory new orders since April 2000 helped offset a slight moderation in the service sector. Goods exports increased at a survey record pace”. EUR/USD extended Wednesday gains to reach a high of 1.1850 whilst AUD/EUR is at 0.6435.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

For most of this week, you’d have been forgiven for thinking that New Zealand had a fixed exchange rate against the Australian Dollar; it hasn’t moved more than 30 pips either side of 1.1080 and after printing a low of 1.1055 on Thursday, it’s now pretty much back to the mid-point of the range. Earlier this week, Statistics New Zealand published detailed data on overseas visitor numbers. Yesterday we got to see how deeply those tourists and NZ residents dug into their pockets to spend some money.<br> <br> Overall sales volumes rose 0.2% in the three months ended September 30, following a 2% increase in the June quarter. Eight of the 15 industries surveyed posted higher sales volumes in the quarter, though comparisons with Q2 can be a little misleading. For example, the food and beverage sector - which includes cafes, restaurants, bars, takeaways, and catering services - saw a record fall in both value and volumes in the quarter (down -2.2% and -3.1%). This came after a record gains in Q2 thanks to the hungry and thirsty supporters of the World Masters Games and the British Lions rugby tour in that earlier period. With NZD/USD now down around the lows of the last 12 months, the big question is whether the cheaper currency will be able to attract a fresh wave of overseas visitors.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US was of course away yesterday for Thanksgiving. Celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the US and the second Monday of October in Canada, it began as a celebration to bless the harvest. Nowadays, it’s a day of rest before the serious business of shopping begins in earnest on ‘Black Friday’; the day when it used to be said storekeepers finally moved out of the red to make some profits before year-end. Though asset markets were closed, foreign exchange is a 24-hour business and continued to trade in Canada after Europe closed.<br> <br> In any case, the calculation of the US Dollar index against a basket of major currencies is mathematically straightforward. As our US friends tucked in to their turkeys, the USD rose against the GBP and CAD, fell against the EUR and AUD and was unchanged against the NZD. With significant index weights also for the Mexican Peso and Japanese Yen, the overall impact of Thursday’s bilateral moves was to push the USD Index down another tenth of a point to 92.8. This is the lowest since October 13th and the technical picture still leaves the way clear for a test of the September 7th low at 91.0. News reports on Friday will doubtless be dominated by the success, or otherwise, of retail promotions and though Markit will release its version of the manufacturing and services PMI’s, it’s a safe bet they will be pretty much ignored.

By Nick Parsons

USD dumps after FOMC Minutes, AUD struggles against everything else


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Australian Dollar has managed to gain some ground against a very weak US Dollar, but it is lower against most of the other FX majors: EUR, GBP and CAD and has even slipped a bit against the Kiwi Dollar. We’ve been arguing here that investors were wrong to focus on RBA Governor Lowe’s comments that, “it is more likely that the next move in interest rates will be up, rather than down” as they weren’t time-defined, most certainly did not indicate an early tightening of policy and told us nothing about the pace of rate hikes relative to the rest of the world.<br> <br> Sometimes it is nice to see a plan come together and feel vindicated when it happens. On a day when the US Dollar index finally broke down through key technical support at 93.30, a net gain for AUD/USD of just 40 pips over the past 24 hours is pretty unimpressive. Yes, it is just over half a cent off the European session low of 0.7560 but the feeling persists that it really should have done better.<br> <br> With the US celebrating Thanksgiving on Thursday and all this week’s Australian economic data all out of the way, investors locally can get down to the serious business of watching the first Ashes Test in Brisbane. England’s cricket fans now get A$1.75 per pound which is the most in more than a year. It may take some of the sting out of buying consolation beers…

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The pound had a pretty mixed day on Wednesday – up against the USD and AUD but down slightly against the EUR, CAD and NZD – after UK Chancellor Philip Hammond delivered his annual Budget speech to the House of Commons. He had the seemingly impossible task of spending more whilst borrowing less against the backdrop of a slowing UK economy and though he generated some initially popular headlines with the scrapping of taxes on house purchases by first-time buyers, the economic numbers he presented from the independent Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) made for pretty grim reading.<br> <br> After growing just 1.5% in 2017, UK GDP is then expected to grow over the next five years by 1.4, 1.3, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 percentage points. Never in modern history has a UK Chancellor stood up to forecast growth below 2% in every one of the next five years. Even the initially positive news headlines might not stand up to much scrutiny when it’s realised that cutting transaction taxes merely pushes up prices with the benefits accruing to existing owners, not new homebuyers. It is often said that a Budget should be judged after 5 weeks, not 5 minutes and if the smiles on the Government benches begin to evaporate, then so too will the recent enthusiasm shown for the GBP…

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar had another good day on Wednesday, boosted by a further sharp rise in oil prices to their highest level of the year. As recently as last Tuesday, NYMEX crude was at $55.19 per barrel. On Tuesday this week it finished in New York around $57.05 and yesterday it traded – and then closed - as high as $58.02. The rise in oil prices was very timely for the Canadian Dollar as some of the earlier optimism around the ‘NAFTA 2.0’ began to be reassessed locally.<br> <br> Indeed, one of the major banks locally in Canada put out a report saying the CAD could fall as much as 20% if the talks failed in the New Year. They stressed this was not their central scenario (otherwise they might now be looking for a new Head of Research!) but noted, “Despite ongoing threats from President Trump and a more contentious renegotiation process of late, we continue to view NAFTA termination as a tail risk… the risk of significant negative impacts to economic activity and financial volatility, through the channel of policy uncertainty, is non-trivial.” USD/CAD is down 75 pips from 1.2780 to 1.2705 over the past 24 hours whist the AUD/CAD cross is down from almost 0.9690 to 0.9665.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro had a pretty good day on Wednesday, regaining a 1.18 handle against the US Dollar and up against all the currencies we follow apart from the CAD. In our New York morning comment (OFX never sleeps!) on German politics, we noted Press reports suggesting Ms. Merkel’s team expected increasing public and political pressure on the SPD to abandon its aversion to a rerun of a "grand coalition" with the Chancellor’s Christian Democratic Union. On Monday, SPD leader Martin Schulz had said: "I will never join a government with Angela Merkel." In response, the Chancellor told ZDF television, "I do hope that they will reflect very intensely about whether they should step up and take responsibility."<br> <br> Opinion polls published Wednesday afternoon show why Ms. Merkel might wish to avoid a return to the ballot box: one survey showing her Conservatives on 29.2 per cent - sinking below 30 per cent for the first time since she took over in 2000 – whilst another put her Christian Democrat party and her current Bavarian coalition allies (CDU/CSU) on exactly 30 per cent, their lowest level ever. With the opposition SPD also losing support, the big gainer continues to be the right-wing AfD party. It is this fact alone which might persuade the traditional parties to re-visit Coalition negotiations; something which would surely be seen as EUR positive.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

The Kiwi Dollar hasn’t had much independent direction of its own this week with an AUD/NZD rate firmly stuck around 1.1080 until Wednesday’s New York session when it finally broke 20 pips lower to 1.1060. This break and more general USD weakness saw NZD/USD pick up almost half a cent to 0.6875; its best level in almost a week.<br> <br> Yesterday we saw the latest official data on overseas visitor numbers to New Zealand. These always make fascinating reading. Short-term visitor arrivals, which include tourists, people visiting family and friends and people travelling for work, reached 3.7 million in the October year, up 8 per cent from a year earlier and a new annual record. Statistics New Zealand says the number of people going to New Zealand on holiday rose 8.6 per cent on an annual basis to 1.9 million people. During the past five years, annual visitor arrivals have regularly hit record highs, and have risen by more than one million, or 40 per cent, since the upward trend began in 2013.<br> <br> Meantime, people living in New Zealand took a record 2.83 million overseas trips in the October 2017 year, up 11 percent on the October 2016 year. If the NZD stays down at current levels, then a trip from North America will be around 3% cheaper than a year ago whilst UK tourists will find the Pound buys around 10 per cent more than it did back in November 2016.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

Even before the Minutes of the last FOMC Meeting were released, the US Dollar had been under pressure; its index against a basket of currencies falling below the key technical support level at 93.30 that we have been highlighting here for the past 10 days. In our London opening commentary on Wednesday, we drew attention to Janet Yellen’s speech at NYU. She said inflation should rebound over the next year or two, although “I will say I am very uncertain about this. My colleagues and I are not certain that it is transitory, and we are monitoring inflation very closely… It may be that there is something more endemic going on or long-lasting here that we need to pay attention to.”<br> <br> These doubts (well-founded in our view) helped push the US Dollar lower throughout the day and were later confirmed in the FOMC Minutes. “A number of participants were worried that a decline in longer-term inflation expectations would make it more challenging for the Committee to promote a return of inflation to 2 percent over the medium term. These participants’ concerns were sharpened by the apparently weak responsiveness of inflation to resource utilisation and the low level of the neutral interest rate, and such considerations suggested that the removal of policy accommodation should be quite gradual.” The USD index has now tumbled below 93.00 to a low of 92.91 and with the Thanksgiving holiday Thursday, there’s nothing now to prevent further USD losses.

By Nick Parsons

AUD and NZD both rally strongly, as does CAD


Australian Dollar

AUD

Expected Range

The Aussie Dollar has had a pretty good 24 hours, even though the reaction to RBA Governor Phil Lowe’s speech to the Australian Business Economists (ABE) annual dinner might well prove to have been a bit optimistic. The RBA chief set out three sets of questions that have occupied much of their time over the past year. The first is how the final stages of the transition to lower levels of mining investment would play out. The second is the degree to which an improving labour market would translate into a pick-up in wage growth and inflation. The third is the nature of risks stemming from high and rising levels of household debt and how to deal with those risks.<br> <br> Mr Lowe’s speeches are always packed with information and insight. They are worth reading many times over. But, in the FX world of instant, reductive analysis, the sentence which drew most attention was that ‘If the economy continues to improve as expected, it is more likely that the next move in interest rates will be up, rather than down’. This was in no way newsworthy. It was a statement of the blindingly obvious. But, in a market which was clearly short of AUD, it was enough to prompt a flurry of buy orders which took AUD/USD up from the 0.7530 area to a high of 0.7586 before closing in New York around 0.7580. Whether it can sustain these gains remains to be seen. The so-called “Construction Work Done” series on Wednesday is the highlight of an otherwise empty calendar today and will be a good test of sentiment after yesterday’s decent Aussie Dollar bounce.

British Pound

GBP / AUD

Expected Range

The best levels for the pound on Tuesday came early in the European session and it gradually slid lower as the day progressed. GBP/USD hit 1.3264 as London traders arrived but lost around 30 pips over the rest of the day. Its best levels against the Aussie and Kiwi Dollars also came in the morning (1.7580 and 1.9505 respectively) and both these pairs ended the day more than a full cent lower.<br> <br> Four of the nine members of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) were giving evidence to MP’s yesterday, with a wide spread of views on the outlook for monetary policy and the reasons for their individual votes at their last meeting. Gertjan Vlieghe, an external MPC member, said he switched his vote to support the rate hike due to signs that employers were finding it harder to recruit staff and that employees were more confident about changing jobs for higher pay whilst Jon Cunliffe, a BoE deputy governor who was one of the two MPC members who voted against a rate hike, said low domestic inflation pressures made it possible to “wait before tightening policy until there is clear evidence that pay growth is responding to the level of unemployment in line with our forecast."<br> <br> There’s something for everyone in that spread of views though the GBP on Wednesday will be all about fiscal policy – not monetary policy – when the Chancellor presents his annual Budget to Parliament. Be prepared for a potentially much more volatile day ahead for the GBP.

Canadian Dollar

AUD / CAD

Expected Range

The Canadian Dollar got a double dose of good news on Tuesday and ended the North American session the equal strongest (with the AUD) of the currencies we follow here. Crude oil was up around 23 cents per barrel with NYMEX spot at $56.66 per barrel; more than a dollar and a half above last week’s low having at one point touched $56.90 late in the New York morning. The other bit of fundamental good news came from the NAFTA negotiations which are being held to thrash out a new version of the 23-year old Free Trade Agreement between the US, Canada and Mexico. These so-called NAFTA 2.0 talks are taking place as closed-door meetings and no documents from the meetings have been made public. Stakeholders involved in the negotiations are also forbidden from disclosing details.<br> <br> Nevertheless, it was reported on Bloomberg yesterday afternoon that, “Mexico sees the nations close to finishing work on telecom, energy and digital commerce chapters in the fifth round of negotiations ending today”. USD/MXN fell from 19.00 to a 4-week low of 18.79 on these headlines, with USD/CAD down from a high of 1.2817 to 1.2753. In other NAFTA news it is also being reported that in the New Year the talks will be moved to non-capital cities and that after Spanish-speaking and English-speaking settings, the Canadians want to hold a round in French-speaking Quebec in late-January. The talks are still live, progress is being made and the CAD has responded accordingly.

Euro

AUD / EUR

Expected Range

The euro had a much calmer day on Tuesday. Having opened in Europe around USD1.1735, it managed a best level in USD1.1750 but then gave back all its admittedly modest gains to end little changed on the day against the USD, though down against the Aussie, Kiwi and Canadian Dollars. With no fresh incoming economic data, the focus of attentions remains very firmly on German politics.<br> <br> We can summarise the four options facing Chancellor Merkel quite simply: She can try to struggle along with a minority government which then risks being defeated in Parliament on any single issue. She can call fresh Federal elections and hope to increase her party’s 33% share of the vote it won in September. She can try to form a Coalition with the SPD who have already rejected this option. Or she can try to restart Sunday’s failed talks in the hope that the FDP’s leader might cop the blame for the instability and be prepared to renegotiate. None of these four options look particularly appealing to Ms. Merkel and none of them provide the solid and stable leadership the EU needs during Brexit negotiations. Flash PMI data on Thursday might help switch investor attention back on the Eurozone economy, but for now politics continue to weigh on the euro.

New Zealand Dollar

AUD / NZD

Expected Range

It’s fair to say that the New Zealand Dollar rose on Tuesday only because the Australian Dollar did. It was certainly not in reaction to any fresh local news, whether economic or political. Offshore traders often link the two Antipodean currencies far more than is warranted by a closer examination of relative fundamentals. So, if the AUD rallied on a one-line comment from RBA Governor Lowe, so it dragged the NZD in its’ wake. The AUD/NZD cross opened in Sydney on Tuesday morning at 1.1090 and it opens today at 1.1090…<br> <br> The latest Global Dairy Auction from Fonterra certainly did nothing to encourage a positive view of the NZD. Dairy values, as measured by the GlobalDairyTrade (GDT) index, dropped for a fourth successive auction, this time by 3.4%, to record their weakest finish in eight months. The index, which came in at 969, also showed a year-on-year decline for the first time since May last year. This morning in NZ brings the official data on overseas visitor numbers and net inward migration. It’s too soon to see the recent fall in the NZD translate into higher tourism inflows but if it’s sustained then it surely can’t do any harm to that industry.

United States Dollar

AUD / USD

Expected Range

The US Dollar is trading as though the Thanksgiving holiday is already here. Its index against a basket of currencies opened the week around 93.50, and thirty-six hours later it stood at 93.67, having been as low as 93.30 on Monday and traded to a high of 93.80 yesterday. In economic data, October’s existing home sales came in stronger than expected at 5.48 million units but the big talking point of the day was the performance of the stock market where the S+P 500 index traded at 2600 for the first time ever. This index added 16 points during the day (0.64%) with the Dow Jones Industrial Average up a whopping 175 points to 23,600.<br> <br> Ahead of Wednesday’s FOMC Minutes, outgoing Fed Chair Janet Yellen is at Stern Business School in New York Tuesday evening at an event billed as “In conversation with Mervyn King”. This is by invitation only and scheduled to start at 6pm local time in New York. Whether her resignation loosens her tongue remains to be seen... With incoming economic data still quite firm and the stock market at record highs, the CME probability calculator shows a 91.5% chance of a 25bp rate hike on December 13th. In fact, such a move is more than fully discounted: there’s a calculated 8.5% probability of a 50bp move. Which would certainly count as a shock!

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